Metasurfaces, due to its designable surface electric and magnetic impedances, have largely enhanced electromagnetic wave manipulation techniques. The conventional approach to realize the surface magnetic impedance requires non-planar structures, such as metallic loops, which is not easy to fabricate, especially at optical frequencies. In this work, we theoretically and rigorously prove that eective surface magnetic and electric impedances can be obtained using parallel electric metasurfaces. A synthesis method is presented which allows independent designs of surface electric and magnetic impedances. Finally, a polarization converter with high energy efficiency is designed using the proposed impedance synthesis method for verification. The proposed synthesis method is favorable for reducing fabrication complexities.
2. Kuester, E. F., M. A. Mohamed, M. Piket-May, and C. L. Holloway, "Averaged transition conditions for electromagnetic fields at a metafilm," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 51, No. 10, 2641-2651, Oct. 2003.
3. Holloway, C. L., M. A. Mohamed, E. F. Kuester, and A. Dienstfrey, "Reflection and transmission properties of a metafilm: With an application to a controllable surface composed of resonant particles," IEEE Trans. Electomag. Compat., Vol. 47, No. 4, 853-865, Nov. 2005.
4. Yu, N., P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, "Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction," Science, Vol. 334, No. 6054, 333-337, 2011.
5. Holloway, C. L., E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, "An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two-dimensional equivalents of metamaterials," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 54, No. 2, 10-35, Apr. 2012.
6. Niemi, T., A. O. Karilainen, and S. A. Tretyakov, "Synthesis of polarization transformers," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 61, No. 6, 3102-3111, Jun. 2013.
7. Selvanayagam, M. and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Discontinuous electromagnetic fields using orthogonal electric and magnetic currents for wavefront manipulation," Opt. Express, Vol. 21, No. 12, 14409-14429, Jun. 17, 2013.
8. Kildishev, A. V., A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, "Planar photonics with metasurfaces," Science, Vol. 339, No. 6125, 2013.
9. Memarzadeh, B. and H. Mosallaei, "Array of planar plasmonic scatterers functioning as light concentrator," Opt. Lett., Vol. 36, No. 13, 2569-2571, 2011.
10. Papakostas, A., A. Potts, D. M. Bagnall, S. L. Prosvirnin, H. J. Coles, and N. I. Zheludev, "Optical manifestations of planar chirality," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 90, 107404, Mar. 2003.
11. Huang, L., X. Chen, H. Muehlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K.-W. Cheah, C.-W. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, "Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface," Nat. Commun., 4, Nov. 2013.
12. Shitrit, N., I. Yulevich, E. Maguid, D. Ozeri, D. Veksler, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Spin-optical metamaterial route to spin-controlled photonics," Science, Vol. 340, No. 6133, 724-726, May 10, 2013.
13. Niv, A., G. Biener, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Spiral phase elements obtained by use of discrete space-variant subwavelength gratings," Opt. Commun., Vol. 251, No. 4–6, 306-314, 2005.
14. Genevet, P., N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, "Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 100, No. 1, 013101, Jan. 2012.
15. Shu, W., D. Song, Z. Tang, H. Luo, Y. Ke, X. Lv, S. Wen, and D. Fan, "Generation of optical beams with desirable orbital angular momenta by transformation media," Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 85, 063840, Jun. 2012.
16. Chen, M. L. N., L. J. Jiang, and W. E. I. Sha, "Ultrathin complementary metasurface for orbital angular momentum generation at microwave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 65, No. 1, 396-400, Jan. 2017.
17. Ding, X., F. Monticone, K. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. Gao, S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, Q. Wu, C.- W. Qiu, and A. Alu, "Ultrathin pancharatnamberry metasurface with maximal cross-polarization efficiency," Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, No. 7, 1195-1200, Feb. 2015.
18. Yu, N., F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, "A broadband, backgroundfree quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces," Nano Lett., Vol. 12, No. 12, 6328-6333, 2012, PMID: 23130979.
19. Hasman, E., V. Kleiner, G. Biener, and A. Niv, "Polarization dependent focusing lens by use of quantized pancharatnam-berry phase diffractive optics," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 82, No. 3, 328-330, 2003.
20. Chen, X., L. Huang, H. M¨uhlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C.-W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, "Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light," Nat. Commun., Vol. 3, 1198, Nov. 2012.
21. Aieta, F., P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, "Aberrationfree ultrathin at lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces," Nano Lett., Vol. 12, No. 9, 4932-4936, 2012, PMID: 22894542.
22. Pors, A., M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Broadband focusing at mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces," Nano Lett., Vol. 13, No. 2, 829-834, 2013, PMID: 23343380.
23. Pfeiffer, C. and A. Grbic, "Metamaterial huygens surfaces: Tailoring wave fronts with re ectionless sheets," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 110, 197401, 2013.
24. Zhu, B. O., K. Chen, N. Jia, L. Sun, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. Feng, "Dynamic control of electromagnetic wave propagation with the equivalent principle inspired tunable metasurface," Sci. Rep., 4, May 15, 2014.
25. Zhao, Y. and A. Alu, "Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 84, 205428, Nov. 2011.
26. Zhang, X., Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, "Broadband terahertz wave de ection based on c-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities," Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, No. 33, 4567-4572, 2013.
27. Kang, M., T. Feng, H.-T. Wang, and J. Li, "Wave front engineering from an array of thin aperture antennas," Opt. Express, Vol. 20, No. 14, 15882-15890, Jul. 2012.
28. Epstein, A. and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Passive lossless huygens metasurfaces for conversion of arbitrary source field to directive radiation," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 62, No. 11, 5680-5695, Nov. 2014.
29. Kim, M., H. Wong, M. Alex, and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Optical huygens’ metasurfaces with independent control of the magnitude and phase of the local reflection coefficients," Phys. Rev. X, Vol. 4, 041042, Dec. 2014.
30. Zhao, Y., M. A. Belkin, and A. Alu, "Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers," Nat. Commun., Vol. 3, 870, May 2012.
31. Monticone, F., N. M. Estakhri, and A. Alu, "Full control of nanoscale optical transmission with a composite metascreen," Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 110, 203903, 2013.
32. Pfeiffer, C., N. K. Emani, A. M. Shaltout, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Grbic, "Efficient light bending with isotropic metamaterial huygens surfaces," Nano Lett., Vol. 14, No. 5, 2491-2497, 2014, PMID: 24689341.
33. Pfeiffer, C. and A. Grbic, "Bianisotropic metasurfaces for optimal polarization control: Analysis and synthesis," Phys. Rev. Applied, Vol. 2, 044011, Oct. 2014.
34. Strikwerda, A. C., K. Fan, H. Tao, D. V. Pilon, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, "Comparison of birefringent electric split-ring resonator and meanderline structures as quarter-wave plates at terahertz frequencies," Opt. Express, Vol. 17, No. 1, 136-149, Jan. 2009.
35. Euler, M., V. Fusco, R. Cahill, and R. Dickie, "325 GHz single layer sub-millimeter wave fss based split slot ring linear to circular polarization convertor," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 58, No. 7, 2457-2459, Jul. 2010.