Vol. 13

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2009-02-11

Design and Analysis Considerations of 4-GHz Integrated Antenna with Negative Resistance Oscillator

By Said H. Ibrahim
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 13, 111-131, 2009
doi:10.2528/PIERB08122901

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to present a complete design and analysis of a new integrated balanced transmitter operated at 4 GHz using microstrip technology. It comprises a 4-GHz two-port negative resistance oscillator and a microstrip-patch antenna resonated at 4 GHz. Three different modules are designed and analyzed. The first one used a Lange coupler as a power splitter while the second and third used a one (two)-section branch couplers. The components of the three modules are designed using full-scale computer simulation program named with MSDES; performed by the author; which takes fully into account all the discontinuities included in the microstrip lines, while the modules are analyzed and optimized using APLAC V7.61 software. The design methodologies of the two-port negative resistance oscillator and microstrip patch antenna are introduced and explained. The analyses of the designed modules show a better efficiency and good performance. The modules give a transmit-antenna gain of 15.7 dB with antenna beam widths 91.7o and 18.2o in E-and H-planes, respectively. The complete schematic diagrams of the transmitter modules are drawn. These modules can be used in satellite communication, Doppler and other radars, active and semi-active seekers, radio altimeters, missile technology, weapon fuzing, manpack equipment, remote sensing, feed elements in complex antennas, satellite navigation receivers, and biomedical radiators.

Citation


Said H. Ibrahim, "Design and Analysis Considerations of 4-GHz Integrated Antenna with Negative Resistance Oscillator," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 13, 111-131, 2009.
doi:10.2528/PIERB08122901
http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=08122901

References


    1. Itoch, T., "Quasi-optical microwave circuits for wireless applications," Microwave J., Vol. 38, No. 1, 64-85, Jan. 1995.

    2. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory, Analysis and Design, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1997.

    3. Lee, K. F. and W. Chen, "Advances in Microstrip and Printed Antennas," John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1997.

    4. Cryan, M., P. Hall, S. Tsang, and J. Sho, "Integrated active antenna with full duplex operation," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory & Tech., Vol. 45, No. 10, Oct. 1997.

    5. Fusco, V., "Series feedback integrated active microstrip antenna synthesis and characterization," Electron. Lett., Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan. 1992.
    doi:10.1049/el:19920055

    6. James, J. R. and P. S. Hall, Handbook of Microstrip Antenna, Peter Peregrinus, London, UK, 1989.

    7. El-Motaafy, H., H. El-Hennawy, E. S. El-Badawy, and S. H. Ibrahim, "A complete computer program for microstrip circuit design," European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD-95), 27-31, Istanbul, Turkey, Aug. 1995.

    8. Ibrahim, S. H., "A comprehensive CAD for microstrip, coaxial and waveguide circuits," WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, Vol. 4, No. 4, 91-100, May 2007.

    9. Ibrahim, S. H., "Distributed MIC application for MSDES WIN software," WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, Vol. 3, No. 11, 557-566, Nov. 2006.

    10. Ibrahim, S. H., "Design and analysis of 4-GHz SOP FMCW HMIC radar," WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, Vol. 4, No. 4, 81-90, Apr. 2007.

    11. Poza, D. M., Microwave Engineering, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1998.

    12. Collin, R. E., Foundation for Microwave Engineering, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1992.

    13. Edwards, T. C., Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1992.

    14. El-Motaafy, H. A., E. A. El-Badawy, and S. H. Ibrahim, "Effects of circuit and MESFET model parameters on the performance of microstrip oscillators," ICME'96, the International Conference on Microelectronics, Bandung, Indonesia, Jan. 16-17, 1996.

    15. El-Motaafy, H. A., E. A. El-Badawy, and S. H. Ibrahim, "CAD program using a modified TD method and its application for the design and analysis of nonlinear MW active circuits," PIERS’1997, Progress In Electromagnetic Research Symposium, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Jan. 6-9, 1997.

    16. El-Motaafy, H. A., M. M. El-Arabaty, and S. H. Ibrahim, "Design and realization of microwave oscillator and amplifiers using microstrip technology," The XIII Conference on Solid-state Science, Sohag-Qena, Egypt, Jan. 20-26, 1990.

    17. Ibrahim, S. H., E. A. El-Badawy, and H. A. El-Motaafy, "Computer-aided design of 2.6 GHz microstrip oscillator," CM'98, Monastir, Tunisia, Dec. 14-16, 1998.

    18. El-Badawy, E. A., H. A. El-Motaafy, and S. H. Ibrahim, "A complete computer program for microstrip circuit design," ECCD'95, European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design, 1995.

    19. Woods, D., "Reappraisal of unconditional stability criteria for active 2-port network in terms of S-parameters," IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems, Feb. 1976.

    20. El-Badawy, E. A., S. H. Ibrahim, and H. A. El-Motaafy, "Design and implementation of a 2-GHz active integrated antenna," Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics, (ATNEM'2000), Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Aug. 2, 2000.

    21. Ramesh, M. and K. B. Yip, "Design formula for inset fed microstrip patch antenna," Journal of Microwaves and Optoelectronics, Vol. 3, No. 3, December 2003.

    22. Murad, S. A. Z. and W. Ismail, "Design of active integrated antenna for dual frequency image rejection," American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 6, 1890-1894, 2006.

    23. Bonefacic, D. and J. bartolic, "Design considerations of an active integrated antenna with negative resistance transistor oscillator," Radioengineering, Vol. 14, No. 4, December 2005.