In this paper, a partial coherent approach is used to study the third and fourth Stokes parameters in passive microwave remote sensing of Sastrugi snow surface over layered snow structures. The incoherent part of the model consists of using radiative transfer theory for the snow layers. The coherent part of the model is using numerical solutions of Maxwell equations to derive the bistatic scattering and transmission coefficients of conical scattering by sastrugi surfaces which have large heights and large slopes. We then use the rough surface boundary conditions of conical scattering from the coherent part, in the incoherent radiative transfer equations. The radiative transfer equations are then solved iteratively that includes multiple interactions between the layered structures and the rough surfaces. Simulation results indicate that large third and fourth Stokes parameters are obtained because of the coupling of large angle transmissions of the rough surfaces with the internal reflections of layered structures. The partial coherent approach also eliminates the coherent interference patterns in angular variations from multiple reflections of layer boundaries that were present in the fully coherent approach.
2. Yueh, S. H., W. J. Wilson, S. J. Dinardo, and S. V. Hsiao, "Polarimetric microwave wind radiometer model function and retrieval testing for WindSat," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 44, 584-596, Mar. 2006.
3. Johnson, J. T., R. Shin, L. Tsang, K. Pak, and J. A. Kong, "A numerical study of ocean polarimetric thermal emission," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 37, No. 1, 8-20, 1999.
4. Tsang, L., "Thermal emission of nonspherical particles," Radio Sci., Vol. 19, No. 4, 966-974, 1984.
5. Tsang, L., "Polarimetric passive microwave remote sensing of random discrete scatterers and rough surfaces," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 5, No. 1, 41-57, 1991.
6. Tsang, L., P. Xu, and K. S. Chen, "Third and fourth stokes parameters in polarimetric passive microwave remote sensing of rough surfaces over layered media," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 50, No. 12, 3063-3069, Dec. 2008.
7. Liang, D., P. Xu, L. Tsang, Z. Gui, and K.-S. Chen, "Electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces with large heights and slopes with applications to microwave remote sensing of rough surface over layered media," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 95, 199-218, 2009.
8. Albert, M. R. and R. L. Hawley, "Seasonal changes in snow surface roughness characteristics at Summit, Greenland: Implications for snow and firn ventilation," Annals of Glaciology, Vol. 35, No. 1, 510-514, Jan. 2002.
9. Li, L., C. H. Chan, and L. Tsang, "Numerical simulation of conical diffraction of tapered electromagnetic waves from random rough surfaces and applications to passive remote sensing," Radio Sci., Vol. 29, No. 3, 587-598, 1994.
10. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, K. H. Ding, and C. O. Ao, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves, Vol. 2: Numerical Simulations, Wiley Interscience, 2001.
11. Tsang, L., J. A. Kong, and K. H. Ding, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves, Theories and Applications, Wiley-Interscience, 2000.
12. West, R., D. P. Winebrenner, L. Tsang, and H. Rott, "Microwave emission from density stratified Antarctic firn at 6 cm, wavelength," Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 42, No. 140, 63-76, 1996.
13. Chang, W. and L. Tsang, "Conical electromagnetic waves diffraction from sastrugi type surfaces of layered snow dunes on greenland ice sheets in passive microwave remote sensing," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 122-125, Jul. 24-29, 2011.
14. Tsang, L., M. C. Kubacsi, and J. A. Kong, "Radiative transfer theory for active remote sensing of a layer of ellipsoidal scatterers," Radio Sci., Vol. 16, No. 3, 321-329, May-Jun. 1981.
15. Tsang, L., C. T. Chen, A. T. C. Chang, J. Guo, and K. H. Ding, "Dense media radiative transfer theory based on quasicrystalline approximation with application to passive microwave remote sensing of snow," Radio Sci., Vol. 35, No. 3, 731-749, May-Jun. 2000.
16. Ding, K. H., X. Xu, and L. Tsang, "Electromagnetic scattering by bicontinuous random microstructures with discrete permittivities," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.,, Vol. 48, No. 8, 3139-3151, Aug. 2010.