Considering Radio Frequency (RF) heating as a viable alternative for the in-shell heating of eggs, Finite Element Modeling and simulation of RF heating of in-shell eggs at 27.12 MHz were carried out to assess the feasibility and heating uniformity of the process. According to the recommendations of USDA-FSIS for the pasteurization of eggs, egg white must be heated up to 57.5°C, and the egg yolk has to be heated up to 61.1°C for 2 min. The objective of the simulation was to determine the locations of hot and cold spots generated due to non-uniform heating. A parallel plate setup for Radio Frequency heating was simulated for different electric field strength levels and orientations of the egg (long axis parallel and long axis perpendicular to the plates). The simulation results were experimentally verified and the simulation procedure was validated using a laboratory parallel plate RF setup. A coaxial cavity design was simulated with a similar approach. Results indicated that both the parallel and coaxial cavity designs were suitable for in-shell pasteurization of eggs provided that the eggs were rotated to maintain the uniformity in heating. After the simulation of RF heating process, the process optimization was carried out to determine the most effective procedure for the process. The varying parameters obtained by using different modeling techniques for radiofrequency heating of in-shell eggs, were optimized using MATLAB. Laboratory scale experimental trials were conducted to test the validity and effectiveness of the optimized parameters. The optimal parameters set forth were found to be more efficient in terms of heating time and uniformity.
2. Li-Chan, E. C. Y., W. D. Powrie, and S. Nakai, "The chemistry of eggs and egg products," Egg Science and Technology, W. J. Stadelman and O. J. Cotterill (eds.), Food Products Press, New York, 1995.
3. FSIS-USDA, "Risk assessments for Salmonella enteritidis in shell eggs and Salmonella spp," Egg Products, FSIS, Omaha, 2006.
4. Schroeder, , C. M., A. L. Naugle, W. D. Schlosser, A. T. Hogue, F. J. Angulo, J. S. Rose, E. D. Ebel, W. T. Disney, K. G. Holt, and D. P. Goldman, "Estimate of illnesses from Salmonella enteritidis in eggs, United States 2000," Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol. 11, 113-115, 2005.
5. Stlouis, M. E., D. L. Morse, M. E. Potter, T. M. Demelfi, J. J. Guzewich, R. V. Tauxe, and P. A. Blake, "The emergence of grade-a eggs as a major source of Salmonella-enteritidis infections --- New implications for the control of salmonellosis," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 259, 2103-2107, 1988.
6. Hou, H., R. K. Singh, P. M. Muriana, and W. J. Stadelman, "Pasteurization of intact shell eggs," Food Microbiol, Vol. 13, 93-101, 1996.
7. Dev, S. R. S., G. S. V. Raghavan, and Y. Gariepy, "Dielectric roperties of egg components and microwave heating for in-shell pasteurization of eggs," Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 86, 207-214, 2008.
8. Birla, S. L., S. Wang, and J. Tang, "Computer simulation of radio frequency heating of model fruit immersed in water," Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 84, 270-280, 2008.
9. Campanone, L. A., C. A. Paola, and R. H. Mascheroni, "Modeling and simulation of microwave heating of foods under different process schedules," Food and Bioprocess Technology, Vol. 5, 738-749, 2011.
10. Campanone, L. A. and N. E. Zaritzky, "Mathematical modeling and simulation of microwave thawing of large solid foods under different operating conditions," Food and Bioprocess Technology,, Vol. 3, 813-825, 2010.
11. Chen, H., J. Tang, and F. Liu, "Simulation model for moving food packages in microwave heating processes using conformal FDTD method," Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 88, 294-305, 2008.
12. Jia, X. and P. Jolly, "Simulation of microwave field and power distribution in a cavity by a 3-dimensional finite-element method," J. Microwave Power and Electromag Energy, Vol. 27, 11-22, 1992.
13. Liu, C. M., Q. Z. Wang, and N. Sakai, "Power and temperature distribution during microwave thawing, simulated by using Maxwell's equations and Lambert's law," International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 40, 9-21, 2005.
14. Olivera, D. F. and V. O. Salvadori, "Finite element modeling of ood cooking," Lat. Am. Appl. Res., Vol. 38, 377-383, 2008.
15. Tiwari, G., S. Wang, J. Tang, and S. L. Birla, "Computer simulation model development and validation for radio frequency (RF) heating of dry food materials," Journal of Food Engineering,, Vol. 105, 48-55, 2011.
16. Watanabe, S., M. Karakawa, and O. Hashimoto, "Computer simulation of temperature distribution of frozen material heated in a microwave oven," IEEE Trans. on Microw. and Theory, Vol. 58, 1196-1204, 2010.
17. Zhou, L., V. M. Puri, R. C. Anantheswaran, and G. Yeh, "Finite-element modeling of heat and mass-transfer in food materials during microwave-heating --- Model development and validation," Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 25, 509-529, 1995.
18. Lin, , Y. E., , R. C. Anantheswaran, V. M. Puri, and , "Modeling temperature distribution during microwave heating," American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Paper No. 89-6506, ASAE AIM, Saint Joseph, MI, USA, 1989.
19. Fu, , W. and A. Metaxas, "Numerical prediction of three-dimensional power density distribution in a multimode cavity," J. Microwave Power and Electromag Energy, Vol. 29, No. 2, 67-75, 1994.
20. Dai, J., "Microwave-assisted extraction and synthesis studies and the scale-up study with the aid Of FDTD simulation,", Dissertation, Department of Bioresource Engineering, McGill University, Canada, 2006.
21. Kannan, S., "Preliminary analyses of the dielectric properties of egg for radio frequency pasteurization," NABEC, Paper No. 11-020, Vol. 22, No. 1, Vermont, USA, 2011.