Vol. 91

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2021-03-01

A Framework for Peak Power Exceedances of High Power Microwave Radiators Applied to a Vircator Surrogate Model

By Mae AlMansoori, Ernesto Neira, Sebastien Lallechere, Jose Felix Vega Stavro, Lars Ole Fichte, Zouhair Nezhi, Chaouki Kasmi, and Marcus Stiemer
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 91, 39-57, 2021
doi:10.2528/PIERB21011301

Abstract

Uncertainty quantification and variability analysis are two domains of interest when looking at the efficiency of HPEM sources. Vircator is known to be a low efficiency high power microwave source subject to several generally volatile phenomena such as plasma expansion and shot-to-shot variability. In this study, a computationally low cost framework combining the Extreme Value Theory (EVT) and the Generalised Design of Experiments is proposed in order to study the peak power distribution of a Vircator obtained with a surrogate model. Following the pre-screening of random variables, the optimised parameters are introduced in 2.5D and 3D simulation tools, namely XOOPIC and CST-PS. It has been confirmed that the peak power output can reach a 40% increase. This shows that the EVT proves to be successful in classifying and quantifying random variables to influence the distribution tails.

Citation


Mae AlMansoori, Ernesto Neira, Sebastien Lallechere, Jose Felix Vega Stavro, Lars Ole Fichte, Zouhair Nezhi, Chaouki Kasmi, and Marcus Stiemer, "A Framework for Peak Power Exceedances of High Power Microwave Radiators Applied to a Vircator Surrogate Model," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 91, 39-57, 2021.
doi:10.2528/PIERB21011301
http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=21011301

References


    1. Wang, Y. and W. Xu, "Probability statistical method of assisting electromagnetic compatibility index decision-making," 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and 2018 IEEE Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC/APEMC), 509-512, May 2018.
    doi:10.1109/ISEMC.2018.8393830

    2. Zhao, Y., X. Zhao, L. Yan, H. Zhou, and K. Huang, "High frequency response sensitivity of electrically large enclosure with aperture and its statistical analysis method," 2015 Asia-Pacific Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC), 185-188, May 2015.

    3. Liang, T., G. Spadacini, F. Grassi, and S. A. Pignari, "Coupling of wideband radiated IEMI to wiring harness: A statistical analysis of the main in uencing parameters," 2018 IEEE Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Signal Integrity and Power Integrity (EMC, SIPI), 357-362, July 2018.

    4. Lallechere, S., C. Carobbi, and L. Arnaut, "Review of uncertainty quantification of measurement and computational modeling in EMC - Part II: Computational uncertainty," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 61, No. 6, 1699-1706, December 2019.
    doi:10.1109/TEMC.2019.2904999

    5. Saleem, I., M. Aslam, and M. Azam, "The use of statistical methods in mechanical engineering," Research Journal of Applied Sciences Engineering and Technology, Vol. 5, 2327-2331, March 2013.
    doi:10.19026/rjaset.5.4660

    6. Yin, H., J. Lan, and X. R. Li, "New robust metrics of central tendency for estimation performance evaluation," 2012 15th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2020-2027, 2012.

    7. Tahir, M. M., A. Q. Khan, N. Iqbal, A. Hussain, and S. Badshah, "Enhancing fault classification accuracy of ball bearing using central tendency based time domain features," IEEE Access, Vol. 5, 72-83, 2017.
    doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2608505

    8. Nourshamsi, N., J. C. West, C. E. Hager, and C. F. Bunting, "Generalized extreme value distributions of fields in nested electromagnetic cavities," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 61, No. 4, 1337-1344, 2019.
    doi:10.1109/TEMC.2019.2911927

    9. Houret, T., P. Besnier, S. Vauchamp, and P. Pouliguen, "Estimating the probability density function of the electromagnetic susceptibility from a small sample of equipment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 83, 93-109, 2019.
    doi:10.2528/PIERB18110703

    10. Roy, A., R. Menon, S. K. Singh, M. R. Kulkarni, P. C. Saroj, K. V. Nagesh, K. C. Mittal, and D. P. Chakravarthy, "Shot to shot variation in perveance of the explosive emission electron beam diode," Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, No. 3, 033113, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3097903.
    doi:10.1063/1.3097903

    11. Roy, A., R. Menon, K. V. Nagesh, and D. P. Chakravarthy, "High-current density electron beam generation from a polymer velvet cathode," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 43, No. 36, 365202, August 2010.
    doi:10.1088/0022-3727/43/36/365202

    12. Roy, A., S. K. Singh, R. Menon, D. Senthil Kumar, S. Khandekar, V. Bhaskar Somu, S. Chottray, P. C. Saroj, K. V. Nagesh, K. C. Mittal, and D. P. Chakravarthy, "Pulsewidth variation of an axial vircator," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 38, No. 7, 1538-1545, 2010.
    doi:10.1109/TPS.2010.2048581

    13. Roy, A., A. Sharma, V. Sharma, A. Patel, and D. P. Chakravarthy, "Frequency variation of a re ex-triode virtual cathode oscillator," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 41, No. 1, 238-242, 2013.
    doi:10.1109/TPS.2012.2225644

    14. Kasmi, C., M. Hélier, M. Darces, and E. Prouff, "Generalised pareto distribution for extreme value modelling in electromagnetic compatibility," Electronics Letters, Vol. 49, No. 5, 334-335, 2013.
    doi:10.1049/el.2012.4448

    15. Verboncoeur, J. P., M. V. Alves, V. Vahedi, and C. K. Birdsall, "Simultaneous potential and circuital solution for 1D bounded plasma particle simulation codes," Computational Physics, Vol. 104, No. 2, 321-328, 1993.
    doi:10.1006/jcph.1993.1034

    16. CST, , CST STUDIO SUITE, Charged Particle Simulation, CST - Computer Simulation Technology, 2019.

    17. Almansoori, M., E. Neira, S. Lallechere, C. Kasmi, F. Vega, and F. Alyafei, "Assessing vircators' reliability through uncertainty and sensitivity analyses using a surrogate model," IEEE Access, Vol. 8, 205 022-205 033, 2020.
    doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3037347

    18. Neira, E., Y.-Z. Xie, and F. Vega, "On the virtual cathode oscillator's energy optimization," AIP Advances, Vol. 8, No. 12, 125210, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5045587.
    doi:10.1063/1.5045587

    19. Choi, M. C., S. H. Choi, M. W. Jung, K. K. Seo, Y. H. Seo, K. S. Cho, E. H. Choi, and H. S. Uhm, "Characteristic of vircator output at various A-K gap distances with diode perveance," IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts. PPPS - 2001 Pulsed Power Plasma Science 2001. 28th IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science and 13th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference (Cat. No.01CH37), 503, June 2001.

    20. Benford, J., J. Swegle, and E. Schamiloglu, High Power Microwaves (Ser. Series in Plasma Physics), CRC Press, 2007. [Online]. Available: https://books.google.ae/books?id=qHCPPQvr12sC.

    21. Petren, J., "Frequency tunability of axial cavity vircators and double anode vircators,", Master's thesis, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), KTH, 2016.

    22. Alyokhin, B. V., A. E. Dubinov, V. D. Selemir, O. A. Shamro, K. V. Shibalko, N. V. Stepanov, and V. E. Vatrunin, "Theoretical and experimental studies of virtual cathode microwave devices," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 22, No. 5, 945-959, October 1994.
    doi:10.1109/27.338312

    23. Neira, E., "Study on the optimization of virtual cathode oscillators for high power microwaves testing,", Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia, September 2019.

    24. Neira, E. and F. Vega, "On the use of xoopic for the simulation of virtual cathode oscillators," European Electromagnetics Symposium 2016, August 2016.

    25. Neira, E., F. Vega, C. Kasmi, and F. AlYafei, "On the power limits of an axially extracted virtual cathode oscillator," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 48, No. 11, 3822-3826, 2020.
    doi:10.1109/TPS.2020.3026706

    26. Kuffel, E., W. Zaengl, and J. Kuffel, High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals, 2nd Ed., 1-7, Newnes, Oxford, 2000. [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780750636346500022.

    27. Child, C. D., "Discharge from hot cao," Phys. Rev. (Series I), Vol. 32, 492-511, May 1911. [Online]. Available: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevSeriesI.32.492.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRevSeriesI.32.492

    28. Langmuir, I., "The effect of space charge and residual gases on thermionic currents in high vacuum," Phys. Rev., Vol. 2, 450-486, December 1913. [Online]. Available: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRev.2.450.
    doi:10.1103/PhysRev.2.450

    29. Choi, E. H., M. C. Choi, S. H. Choi, K. B. Song, Y. Jung, Y. H. Seo, H. M. Shin, H. S. Uhm, D. W. Lim, C. H. Kim, J. M. Lee, and J. W. Ahn, "Characteristics of diode perveance and vircator output under various anode-cathode gap distances," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1728-1732, 2002.
    doi:10.1109/TPS.2002.806615

    30. Kim, H.-Y., "Statistical notes for clinical researchers: Assessing normal distribution (2) using skewness and kurtosis," Restorative Dentistry Endodontics, Vol. 38, 52-54, February 2013.
    doi:10.5395/rde.2013.38.1.52

    31. Balkema, A. A. and L. de Haan, "Residual life time at great age," Ann. Probab., Vol. 2, No. 5, 792-804, October 1974. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1214/aop/1176996548.

    32. Scarrott, C. and A. MacDonald, "A review of extreme value threshold estimation and uncertainty quantification," Revstat Statistical Journal, Vol. 10, 33-60, March 2012.

    33. Caeiro, F. and M. Gomes, Threshold Selection in Extreme Value Analysis: Methods and Applications, 69-86, Chapman and Hall, December 2015.

    34. Tajvidi, N., "Characterisation and some statistical aspects of univariate and multivariate generalised pareto distributions,", Chalmers University Of Technology, September 1999.

    35. Clements, K. R., R. D. Curry, R. Druce, W. Carter, M. Kovac, J. Benford, and K. McDonald, "Design and operation of a dual vircator HPM source," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1085-1092, 2013.
    doi:10.1109/TDEI.2013.6571421

    36. Han, S. H., J. S. Choi, S. H. Baek, and T. Hurtig, "Particle simulation of coaxial vircator," ASIAEM 2015, Conference Proceedings, 151, 2015.