Vol. 93

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2021-07-17

Metal Discovery by Highly Sensitive Microwave Multi-Band Metamaterial-Inspired Sensors

By Ghaleb Al-Duhni and Nantakan Wongkasem
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 93, 1-22, 2021
doi:10.2528/PIERB21051606

Abstract

A simple, compact, contactless, and high sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensorhas been developed to detect and classify precious transition metals in the S- and C-band regime, using reflection coefficients. A multi-band metamaterial, quadruple concentric circular split ring resonator, is specifically designed as a sensing enhancer, where the additional bands can effectively trigger the electromagnetic properties, as well as enhance the differentiation between the testing metal samples. The proposed sensor was tested on precious transition metals, silver, platinum and gold thin slabs of various thicknesses, from 0.5 μm to 3 mm. Five resonances were established in the frequency range of 2-8 GHz. Distinguishable frequency responses generated from different metal samples at those five resonances specify the capability of classifying the metal contents and thicknesses.

Citation


Ghaleb Al-Duhni and Nantakan Wongkasem, "Metal Discovery by Highly Sensitive Microwave Multi-Band Metamaterial-Inspired Sensors," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 93, 1-22, 2021.
doi:10.2528/PIERB21051606
http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pier.php?paper=21051606

References


    1. Gouyon, J., F. d'Orlye, C. Simon, S. Griveau, C. Sella, L. Thouin, F. Bedioui, and A. Varenne, "Reversible microfluidics device for precious metal electrodeposition and depletion yield studies," Electrochimica Acta, Vol. 352, 136474, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2020.136474.

    2. Shahat, A. and S. Trupp, "Sensitive, selective, and rapid method for optical recognition of ultra- traces level of Hg(II), Ag(I), Au(III), and Pd(II) in electronic wastes," Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical, Vol. 245, 789-802, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2017.02.008.

    3. Mohamed, S., H. Hassan, A. Shahat, M. Awual, and R. Kamel, "A ligand-based conjugate solid sensor for colorimetric ultra-trace gold(III) detection in urban mining waste," Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, Vol. 581, 123842, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.123842.

    4. Elshehy, E., S. El-Safty, M. Shenashen, and M. Khairy, "Design and evaluation of optical mesocaptor for the detection/recovery of Au(III) from an urban mine," Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical, Vol. 203, 363-374, 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2014.06.055.

    5. Elci, L., M. Soylak, and E. B. Buyuksekerci, "Separation of gold, palladium and platinum from metallurgical samples using an amberlite XAD-7 resin column prior to their atomic absorption spectrometric determinations," Analytical Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 12, 1621-1624, 2003, https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.19.1621.

    6. Yu, B., Y. Huang, J. Zhou, T. Guo, and B. Guan, "Real-time, in-situ analysis of silver ions using nucleic acid probes modified silica microfiber interferometry," Talanta (Oxford), Vol. 165, 245-250, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2016.12.053.

    7. Santibanez, M., R. Saavedra, J. Vedelago, F. Malano, and M. Valente, "Optimized EDXRF system for simultaneous detection of gold and silver nanoparticles in tumor phantom," Radiation Physics and Chemistry (Oxford, England: 1993), Vol. 165, 108415, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.1084.

    8. Zhang, M., G. Zhu, T. Li, X. Lou, and L. Zhu, "A dual-channel optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for heavy metal ions detection in contaminated water," Optics Communications, Vol. 462, 124750, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2019.124750.

    9. Funari, R., R. Ripa, B. Soderstrom, U. Skoglund, and A. Shen, "Detecting gold biomineralization by delftiaacidovorans biofilms on a quartz crystal microbalance," ACS Sensors, Vol. 4, No. 11, 3023-3033, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.9b01580.

    10. Zuber, A., M. Purdey, E. Schartner, C. Forbes, B. van der Hoek, D. Giles, A. Abell, T. Monro, and H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Detection of gold nanoparticles with different sizes using absorption and uorescence-based method," Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical, Vol. 227, 117-127, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2015.12.044.

    11. Ghosh, P. K., D. T. Debu, D. A. French, and J. B. Herzog, "Calculated thickness dependent plasmonic properties of gold nanobars in the visible to near-infrared light regime," PloS One, Vol. 12, No. 5, e0177463, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177463.

    12. Li, S., H. Liu, L. Liu, Q. Lin, and X. Zhai, "Effect of silver film thickness on the surface plasma resonance in the rectangular Ag-Si-SiO2 cavity," Journal of Physics Communications, Vol. 2, No. 5, 55024, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1088/2399-6528/aac52e.

    13. Yamazaki, S., H. Nakane, and A. Tanaka, "Basic analysis of a metal detector," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 51, No. 4, 810-814, 2002, https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2002.803397.

    14. Tang, Z. and L. J. Carter, "Metal detector head analysis," 2011 Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology, 93-96, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSensT.2011.6137076.

    15. Lahrech, A., A. Zaoui, F. Benyoubi, and A. Sakoub, "Modeling of inductive metal detector with swept frequency excitation," 2013 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA), 1305-1308, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEAA.2013.6632461.

    16. Liu, B. and W. Zhou, "The research of metal detectors using in food industry," Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electronics and Optoelectronics, Vol. 4, V4-43-V4-45, 2011, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEOE.2011.6013421.

    17. Bedenik, G., J. Silveira, I. Santos, E. Carvalho, J. Carvalho, and R. Freire, "Single coil metal detector and classifier based on phase measurement," 2019 4th International Symposium on Instrumentation Systems, Circuits and Transducers (INSCIT), 1-6, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/INSCIT.2019.8868329.

    18. Sharawi, M. and M. Sharawi, "Design and implementation of a low-cost VLF metal detector with metal-type discrimination capabilities," 2007 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing and Communications, 480-483, 2007, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSPC.2007.4728360.

    19. Zhang, N., J. Cao, S. Wang, S. Wang, and S. Wang, "Design and calculation of planar eddy current coil in coin identification," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1-4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2016.2594860.

    20. Su, L., J. Naqui, J. Mata-Contreras, and F. Martin, "Modeling metamaterial transmission lines loaded with pairs of coupled split-ring resonators," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 14, 68-71, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1109/LAWP.2014.2355035.

    21. Wongkasem, N. and M. Ruiz, "Multi-negative index band metamaterials-inspired microfluidic sensors," Progress In Electromagnetic Research C, Vol. 94, 29-44, 2019.

    22. Ruiz, M. and N. Wongkasem, "Development of X-band metamaterial-inspired sensors for dielectric constant detection," IEEE AP-S Conference Proceedings, 1-2, Atlanta, USA, July 2019.

    23. Zhou, H., D. Hu, C. Yang, C. Chen, J. Ji, M. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, and X. Mu, "Multi-band sensing for dielectric property of chemicals using metamaterial integrated microfluidic sensor," Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1-al, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32827-y.

    24. Salim, A. and S. Lim, "Review of recent metamaterial microfluidic sensors," Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 18, No. 1-232, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010232.

    25. Liu, W., H. Sun, and L. Xu, "A microwave method for dielectric characterization measurement of small liquids using a metamaterial-based sensor," Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), Vol. 18, No. 5, 1438, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051438.

    26. CST Microwave Studio Suites, https://www.3ds.com/products-services/simulia/products/cst- studio-suite/CST, accessed on January 1, 2021.

    27. Helmenstine, A. M., "Transition metals: List and properties,", thoughtco.com/transition-metals-list-and-properties-606663, ThoughtCo, August 28, 2020.

    28., "Wikipedia: Post-transition metal,", available: https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwH-CnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Post-transition metal.html, last modified January 31, 2021.

    29. Flowers, P., K. Theopold, R. Langley, and W. R. Robinson, Chemistry 2e, 2nd Ed., Openstax, XanEdu Publishing Inc, 2019.

    30. Weast, R. C., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1988.

    31. Wikipedia: Manganese, available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese, last modified January 31, 2021.

    32. Memon, M., A. Salim, H. Jeong, and S. Lim, "Metamaterial inspired radio frequency-based touchpad sensor system," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 69, No. 4, 1344-1352, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2019.2908507.

    33. Chamoli, S., S. Singh, and C. Guo, "Metal-Dielectric-Metal metamaterial-based hydrogen sensors in the water transmission window," IEEE Sensors Letters, Vol. 4, No. 5, 1-4, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/LSENS.2020.2991081.

    34. Zahertar, S., E. Laurin, L. Dodd, and H. Torun, "Embroidered rectangular split-ring resonators for the characterization of dielectric materials," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2434-2439, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2019.2953251.

    35. Shahzad, W., W. Hu, A. Samad, and L. Ligthart, "Complementary split ring res- onator based metamaterial sensor for dielectric materials measurements," 2020 17th Inter- national Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 695-698, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/IBCAST47879.2020.9044550.

    36. Samad, A., W. Hu, W. Shahzad, and L. Ligthart, "Design and simulation of meta-material sensor and numerical formulation for dielectric properties," 2020 17th Interna- tional Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), 714-716, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/IBCAST47879.2020.9044571.

    37. Li, D., S. Lin, F. Hu, Z. Chen, W. Zhang, and J. Han, "Metamaterial terahertz sensor for measuring thermal-induced denaturation temperature of insulin," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4, 1821-1828, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2019.2949617.

    38. Samad, A., W. Hu, W. Shahzad, and H. Raza, "Design of DS-CSRR based microwave sensor for efficient measurement of dielectric constant of materials," 2020 5th In- ternational Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS), 821-824, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCCS49078.2020.9118544.

    39. Saadeldin, A., M. Hameed, E. Elkaramany, and S. Obayya, "Highly sensitive terahertz metamaterial sensor," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 19, No. 18, 7993-7999, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2019.2918214.

    40. Ma, L., Z. Cui, D. Zhu, L. Yue, L. Hou, and Y. Wang, "Metamaterials sensor based on multiband terahertz absorber," 2019 44th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 1-2, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2019.8874505.

    41. Yudistira, H. T. and M. Asril, "Preliminary study of microwave metamaterial based on cylinder-shaped for sensor," 2019 6th International Conference on Instrumentation, Control, and Automation (ICA), 203-206, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/ica.2019.8916692.

    42. Govind, G. and M. Akhtar, "Metamaterial-inspired microwave microfluidic sensor for glucose monitoring in aqueous solutions," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 19, No. 24, 11900-11907, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2019.2938853.

    43. Huang, S., Y. Hu, S. Hsu, K. Tang, T. Yen, and D. Yao, "X-shaped metamaterial biosensor combined with microfluidic system for different IPA concentration measurement," 2019 44th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 1-2, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2019.8873860.

    44. Wu, Y., Y. Meng, B. Yakupoglu, and M. Adams, "A metamaterial/liquid-core waveguide microfluidic optical sensor," Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, Vol. 300, 111592, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2019.111592.

    45. Agarwal, S. and Y. Prajapati, "Metamaterial based sucrose detection sensor using transmission spectroscopy," Optik (Stuttgart), Vol. 205, 164276, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2020.164276.

    46. Caetano da Silva, J. and V. Rodriguez-Esquerre, "Metamaterial waveguides as integrated optics sensor," Optik (Stuttgart), Vol. 212, 164756, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2020.164756.

    47. Altintas, O., M. Aksoy, and E. Unal, "Design of a metamaterial-inspired omega shaped resonator-based sensor for industrial implementations," Physica. E, Low-Dimensional Systems & Nanostructures, Vol. 116, 113734, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physe.2019.113734.

    48. Gulsu, M., F. Bagci, S. Can, A. Yilmaz, and B. Akaoglu, "Metamaterial-based sensor with a poly-carbonate substrate for sensing the permittivity of alcoholic liquids in a WR-229 waveguide," Sen- sors and Actuators. A, Physical, Vol. 312, 112139, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2020.112139.

    49. Tang, M., L. Xia, D. Wei, S. Yan, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, H. Wang, C. Du, and H. Cui, "Rapid and label-free metamaterial-based biosensor for fatty acid detection with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, Vol. 228, 117736, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2019.117736.

    50. Hossain, T., M. Jamlos, M. Jamlos, F. Dzaharudin, M. Ismail, S. Al-Bawri, S. Sugumaran, and M. Ahmad Salimi, "Bandwidth enhancement of five-port reflectometer-based ENG DSRR metamaterial for microwave imaging application," Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, Vol. 303, 111638, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2019.111638.

    51. Faruk, A. and C. Sabah, "Absorber and sensor applications of complimentary H-shaped fishnet metamaterial for sub-terahertz frequency region," Optik (Stuttgart), Vol. 177, 64-70, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2018.09.145.

    52. Yelizarov, A., A. Kukharenko, and A. Skuridin, "Metamaterial-based sensor for measurements of physical quantities and parameters of technological processes," 2018 12th International Congress on Artificial Materials for Novel Wave Phenomena (Metamaterials), 448-450, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/MetaMaterials.2018.8534122.

    53. Luo, J., R. Xu, W. Chen, J. Sha, K. Yan, D. Yao, X. Liu, S. Liao, J. Zhong, S. Yang, Y. Yu, Y. Tong, Z. Xu, and Y. Lin, "An ultra-sensitive glucose sensor by using metamaterial-based microfluidic chip," 2018 International Conference on Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics (OMN), 1-2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/OMN.2018.8454547.

    54. Zhou, Y., J. Cai, L. Yang, and C. Zhang, "Highly sensitive microwave microfluidic chemical sensors based on metamaterials," 2018 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM), 1-3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/COMPEM.2018.8496587.

    55. Chuma, E., Y. Iano, G. Fontgalland, and L. Bravo Roger, "Microwave sensor for liquid dielectric characterization based on metamaterial complementary split ring resonator," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 18, No. 24, December 15, 2018.

    56. Shaw, T. and D. Mitra, "Electromagnetic metamaterial-based sensor design for chemical discrimination," 2017 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave and RF Conference (IMaRC), 271-274, 2017.

    57. Velez, P., L. Su, K. Grenier, J. Mata-Contreras, D. Dubuc, and F. Martin, "Microwave microfluidic sensor based on a microstrip splitter/combiner configuration and Split Ring Resonators (SRRs) for dielectric characterization of liquids," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 17, No. 20, October 15, 2017.

    58. Shi, P., R. Gao, S. Liu, and Y. Yuan, "Topology optimization-based design of metamaterial-inspired sensor with improved sensitivity," Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, Vol. 268, 83-90, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2017.10.050.

    59. Sekkache, H. and M. Lashab, "Study and design of a sensor containing metamaterials, application into biomedical," 2018 International Conference on Advanced Systems and Electric Technologies (IC ASET), 2018.

    60. Withayachumnankul, W., K. Jaruwongrungsee, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, "Metamaterial-inspired multichannel thin-film sensor," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 12, No. 5, May 2012.

    61. Bakir, M., M. Karaaslan, E. Unal, F. Karadag, F. O. Alkurt, O. Altintas, S. Dalgac, and C. Sabah, "Microfluidic and fuel adulteration sensing by using chiral metamaterial sensor," J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 165, 11, 2018.

    62. Su, L., J. Mata-Contreras, P. Velez, and F. Martin, "A review of sensing strategies for microwave sensors based on metamaterial-inspired resonator: Dielectric characterization, displacement, and angular velocity measurements for health diagnosis, telecommunication, and space applications," Int. J. of Antennas and Propagation, 5619728, 2017.

    63. Bakir, M., "Electromagnetic-based microfluidic sensor applications," J. Electrochem. Soc., Vol. 164, B488-B494, 2017.

    64. Shih, K., P. Pitchappa, M. Manjappa, C. P. Ho, R. Singh, and C. Lee, "Microfluidic metamaterial sensor: Selective trapping and remote sensing of microparticles," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 121, 023102, 2017.

    65. Saghati, A. P., J. S. Batra, J. Kameoka, and K. Entesari, "A metamaterial-inspired wideband microwave interferometry sensor for dielectric spectroscopy of liquid chemicals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 65, 2558-2570, 2017.

    66. Sadeqi, A. and S. Sonkusale, "Low-cost metamaterial-on-paper chemical sensor," Transducers Int. Conf. Solid-State Sens., Actuators Microsyst., Vol. 25, 1437-1440, 2017.

    67. Awang, R. A., F. J. Tovar-Lopez, T. Baum, S. Sriram, and W. S. T. Rowe, "Meta-atom microfluidic sensor for measurement of dielectric properties of liquids," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 121, 094506, 2017.

    68. Salim, A. and S. Lim, "Complementary split-ring resonator-loaded microfluidic ethanol chemical sensor," Sensors, Vol. 16, 1802, 2016.

    69. Kim, H. K., D. Lee, and S. A. Lim, "Fluidically tunable metasurface absorber for fexible large-scale wireless ethanol sensor applications," Sensors, Vol. 16, 1246, 2016.

    70. Long, J. and B. Wang, "A metamaterial-inspired sensor for combined inductive-capacitive," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 106, 074104, 2015.

    71. Kim, H. K., M. Yoo, and S. Lim, "Novel ethanol chemical sensor using microfluidic metamaterial," Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation & National Radio Science Meeting, 1358-1359, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 2015.

    72. Byford, J. A., K. Y. Park, and P. Chahal, "Metamaterial inspired periodic structure used for microfluidic sensing," Proceedings of the Electronic Components Technology Conference, 1997-2002, San Diego, CA, USA, May 2015.

    73. Rawat, V., S. Dhobale, and S. N. Kale, "Ultra-fast selective sensing of ethanol and petrol using microwave-range metamaterial complementary split-ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 116, 164106, 2014.

    74. Ebrahimi, A., W. Withayachumnankul, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, "High-sensitivity metamaterial-inspired sensor for microfluidic dielectric characterization," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 14, No. 5, 2014.

    75. Abduljabar, A., D. J. Rowe, A. Porch, and D. A. Barrow, "Novel microwave microfluidic sensor using a microstrip split-ring resonator," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 62, 679-688, 2014.

    76. Withayachumnankul, W., K. Jaruwongrungsee, A. Tuantranont, C. Fumeaux, and D. Abbott, "Metamaterial-based microfluidic sensor for dielectric characterization," Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical, Vol. 189, 233-237, 2013.

    77. Chretiennot, T., D. Dubuc, and K. Grenier, "A microwave and microfluidic planar resonator for efficient and accurate complex permittivity characterization of aqueous solutions," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., Vol. 61, No. 2, 972-978, 2013.

    78. Agarwal, S. and Y. K. Prajapati, "Multifunctional metamaterial surface for absorbing and sensing applications," Optics Communications, Vol. 439, No. 15, 304-307, 2019.

    79. Agarwal, S., Y. K. Prajapati, and V. Mishra, "Thinned fibrebragg grating as a fuel adulteration sensor: Simulation and experimental study," Opto-Electronics Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, 231-238, 2015.

    80. Afapour, Z. O. V., Y. A. H. Ajati, and M. O. H. Ajati, "Graphene-based mid-infrared biosensor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, Vol. 34, 2586-2592, 2017.

    81. Geng, Z., X. Zhang, Z. Fan, X. Lv, and H. Chen, "A route to terahertz metamaterial biosensor integrated with microfluidics for liver cancer biomarker testing in early stage," Sci. Rep., Vol. 7, 1-11, 2017.

    82. Sreekanth, K. V., Y. Alapan, M. El Kabbash, E. Ilker, M. Hinczewski, U. A. Gurkan, A. De Luca, and G. Strangi, "Extreme sensitivity biosensing platform based on hyperbolic metamaterials," Nat. Mater., Vol. 15, 621-627, 2016.

    83. Aristov, A. I., M. Manousidaki, A. Danilov, K. Terzaki, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and A. V. Kabashin, "3D plasmonic crystal metamaterials for ultra-sensitive biosensing," Sci. Rep., Vol. 6, 1-8, 2016.

    84. Chen, M., F. Fan, S. Shen, X. Wang, and S. Chang, "Terahertz ultrathin film thickness sensor below λ/90 based on metamaterial," Appl. Opt., Vol. 55, 6471-6474, 2016.

    85. Lee, D.-K. K., J.-H. H. Kang, J.-S. S. Lee, H.-S. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. Hun Kim, T. Lee, J.-H. H. Son, Q.-H. H. Park, and M. Seo, "Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas," Sci. Rep., Vol. 5, 1-7, 2015.

    86. Wu, P. C., G. Sun, W. T. Chen, K. Y. Yang, Y. W. Huang, Y. H. Chen, H. L. Huang, W. L. Hsu, H. P. Chiang, and D. P. Tsai, "Vertical split-ring resonator based nanoplasmonic sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 105, 3898, 2014.

    87. Torun, H., F. Cagri Top, G. Dundar, and A. D. Yalcinkaya, "An antenna-coupled split-ring resonator for biosensing," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 116, 124701, 2014.

    88. Lee, H. J., J. H. Lee, H. S. Moon, I. S. Jang, J. S. Choi, J. G. Yook, and H. Jung, "A planar splitring resonator-based microwave biosensor for label-free detection of biomolecules," Sens. Actuators B Chem., Vol. 169, 26-31, 2012.

    89. Chen, T., S. Li, and H. Sun, "Metamaterials application in sensing," Sensors, Vol. 12, 2742-2765, 2012.

    90. Zijlstra, P., P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, "Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod," Nat. Nanotechnol., Vol. 7, 379-382, 2012.

    91. Lee, H. J. and J. G. Yook, "Biosensing using split-ring resonators at microwave regime," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 92, 10-13, 2008.

    92. Thankachan, S. and B. Paul, "A compact metamaterial inspired CPW fed multiband monopole antenna for wireless applications," 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting, 427-428, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1109/IEEECONF35879.2020.9329799.

    93. Christydass, S. and N. Gunavathi, "Co-directional CSRR inspired printed antenna for locomotive short range radar," 2017 International Conference on Inventive Computing and Informatics (ICICI), 627-630, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICICI.2017.8365209.

    94. Mishra, A., M. Ameen, and R. Chaudhary, "A compact triple band metamaterial inspired antenna using SRR and hexagonal stub for UMTS, WLAN, and WiMAX applications in S/C bands," 2019 URSI Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC), 1-4, 2019, https://doi.org/10.23919/URSIAP-RASC.2019.8738481.

    95. White, G. M., "The origins and the future of microfluidics," Nature, Vol. 442, 368-373, 2006.

    96. Arritt, B. J., D. R. Smith, and T. Khraishi, "Equivalent circuit analysis of metamaterial strain dependent effective medium parameters," J. of Applied Science, Vol. 109, 073512, 2011.