In this paper, a patch antenna (PA) and its self-complementary structure, slot antenna (SA) are proposed and designed for directly matching the impedance of a rectifierat 2.45 GHz resonance frequency. The structures of these antennas comprise three sections, meandered-line, spiral, and a double-folded geometries, which make their geometrical parameters to be varied in easy manner according to design equations. In order to enhance both the desired level of a complex reflection coefficient of antenna at given resonance frequencies and the specified lower and higher frequencies constituting the impedance frequency bands, a new fitness function is presented. This fitness function is applied in designing broadband or multiband antennas having approximately perfect conjugate impedance matching with the impedance of a rectifier suitably used for RF Energy Harvesting (RF EH) application. An optimization design methodology based on two programs operating in synchronous manner, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) implemented in MATLAB simulation tool anda CST MWS Electromagnetic (EM) solver, is applied to the designed PA as an illustrative example. The simulation results reveal that our design methodology is helpful to obtain an optimized PA (OPA) having good impedance matching at the desired resonance frequency along with appropriate band. Measured result of the fabricated prototype is in good agreement with the simulated ones. Moreover, acceptable features such as small size, omnidirectional radiation, and broadband operation satisfy the (2.4-2.5 GHz) WLAN band, which strongly makesthe OPA a good candidate for RF EH applications.
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