In this paper, a dual-loop gate antenna is designed to generate the magnetic field distribution in various directions. It is applied to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems for animal identification operating at the low frequency (LF) band of 125 kHz and 134.2 kHz. The percentage of volume of magnetic field intensity is introduced and used as a figure of merit in the design. The optimum antenna parameters are also designed by the genetic algorithm (GA) in conjunction with the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC). The prototype antenna was fabricated and tested to confirm the antenna performance in the LF-RFID system for animal identification. It is found that the dual-loop gate antenna can be efficiently used in the LF-RFID system.
2. Paret, D., RFID and Contactless Smart Card Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
3. AN678 RFID Coil Design, [Online], available: http://www.micro-chip.com.
4. U2270B Antenna Design Hints, [Online], available: http://ftp.jet-edata.cz/pub/ham/sheet/u/Hu22-H70hin.pdf.
5. Hayt, W. H., Engineering Electromagnetics, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989.
6. Jiayin, T., H. Yan, and M. Hao, "A novel baseband-processor for LF RFID tag," ASICON International Conference, 810-873, Oct. 2007.
7. US 4,135,183, "Antipilferage system utilizing figure-8 shaped field producing and detector coils,", Jan. 16, 1979.
8. US 5,440,296, "Coil assembly for electronic article surveillance system,", Aug. 8, 1995.
9. Mansap, C., P. Wounchoum, C. Phongcharoenpanich, and D. Torrungrueng, "Trapezoidal dual loop antenna for radio frequency identification (RFID) system at low frequency," Proceedings of the 2006 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Vol. 3, 1478-1481, Yokohama, Dec. 2006.
10. Silva, V. M., F. C. Silva, M. M. B. Terada, A. J. M. Soares, and S. B. A. Fonseca, "Novel class of loop antennas," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2744-2746, Sep. 1998.
11. Kalyanmoy, D., Optimization for Engineering Design Algorithms and Examples, Prentice Hall of India, 1995.
12. Man, K. F., K. S. Tang, and S. Kwong, "Genetic algorithms: Concepts and application," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 5, 519-534, Oct. 1996.
13. Grefenstette, J. J., "Optimization of control parameters for genetic algorithms," IEEE Trans. on System, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 16, No. l, 122-128, Jan. 1986.
14. Samii, Y. R., Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
15. Liao, Y. H. and C. T. Sun, "An education genetic algorithms learning tool," IEEE Trans. on Education, Vol. 44, No. 2, 205-210, May 2001.
16. Meng, Z. Q., "Autonomous genetic algorithm for functional optimization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 72, 253-268, 2007.
17. Sijher, T. S. and A. A. Kishk, "Antenna modeling by infinitesimal dipoles using genetic algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 52, 225-254, 2005.
18. Kuwahara, Y., "Multiobjective optimization design of yagi-uda antenna," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 6, 1984-1992, Jun. 2005.
19. Gao, Y., L. Shi, and P. Yao, "Study on multi-objective genetic algorithm," Intelligent Control and Automation, Vol. 1, 646-650, Jun. 2000.
20. Burke, G. J. and A. J. Poggio, "Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) method of moment, Part I-III,", Lawrence LiverMore Nat. Lab., Livermore, CA, 1981.