In this paper, a dual-loop gate antenna is designed to generate the magnetic field distribution in various directions. It is applied to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems for animal identification operating at the low frequency (LF) band of 125 kHz and 134.2 kHz. The percentage of volume of magnetic field intensity is introduced and used as a figure of merit in the design. The optimum antenna parameters are also designed by the genetic algorithm (GA) in conjunction with the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC). The prototype antenna was fabricated and tested to confirm the antenna performance in the LF-RFID system for animal identification. It is found that the dual-loop gate antenna can be efficiently used in the LF-RFID system.
5. Hayt, W. H., Engineering Electromagnetics, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989.
6. Jiayin, T., H. Yan, and M. Hao, "A novel baseband-processor for LF RFID tag," ASICON International Conference, 810-873, Oct. 2007.
7. US 4,135,183, "Antipilferage system utilizing figure-8 shaped field producing and detector coils,", Jan. 16, 1979.
8. US 5,440,296, "Coil assembly for electronic article surveillance system,", Aug. 8, 1995.
9. Mansap, C., P. Wounchoum, C. Phongcharoenpanich, and D. Torrungrueng, "Trapezoidal dual loop antenna for radio frequency identification (RFID) system at low frequency," Proceedings of the 2006 Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, Vol. 3, 1478-1481, Yokohama, Dec. 2006.
10. Silva, V. M., F. C. Silva, M. M. B. Terada, A. J. M. Soares, and S. B. A. Fonseca, "Novel class of loop antennas," IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, Vol. 34, No. 5, 2744-2746, Sep. 1998. doi:10.1109/20.717637
11. Kalyanmoy, D., Optimization for Engineering Design Algorithms and Examples, Prentice Hall of India, 1995.
12. Man, K. F., K. S. Tang, and S. Kwong, "Genetic algorithms: Concepts and application," IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 43, No. 5, 519-534, Oct. 1996. doi:10.1109/41.538609
13. Grefenstette, J. J., "Optimization of control parameters for genetic algorithms," IEEE Trans. on System, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 16, No. l, 122-128, Jan. 1986. doi:10.1109/TSMC.1986.289288
14. Samii, Y. R., Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
15. Liao, Y. H. and C. T. Sun, "An education genetic algorithms learning tool," IEEE Trans. on Education, Vol. 44, No. 2, 205-210, May 2001.
16. Meng, Z. Q., "Autonomous genetic algorithm for functional optimization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 72, 253-268, 2007. doi:10.2528/PIER07031506
17. Sijher, T. S. and A. A. Kishk, "Antenna modeling by infinitesimal dipoles using genetic algorithms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 52, 225-254, 2005. doi:10.2528/PIER04081801
18. Kuwahara, Y., "Multiobjective optimization design of yagi-uda antenna," IEEE Trans. on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 6, 1984-1992, Jun. 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2005.848501
19. Gao, Y., L. Shi, and P. Yao, "Study on multi-objective genetic algorithm," Intelligent Control and Automation, Vol. 1, 646-650, Jun. 2000.
20. Burke, G. J. and A. J. Poggio, "Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) method of moment, Part I-III,", Lawrence LiverMore Nat. Lab., Livermore, CA, 1981.