In this paper, 4G smart planar dual-band phased array antenna suitable for fourth generation (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) and also Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) systems is developed. The proposed planar array antenna is built using a microstrip rectangular U-slotted patch antenna element. Single element and linear sub-arrays with 1 x 2 and 1 x 4 dimensions of this element are designed, fabricated, and measured by the same authors. Separate feeding technique is used for each element of the smart planar array antenna; such that full beam-shaping can be achieved by steering the pattern main-loop to different angles in both azimuth and elevation directions with different amplitudes. Beam steering up to ±22 degrees can be achieved in both azimuth and elevation direction at 60 degrees phase shift without the presence of any grating lobes. At this value of phase shift, the gain is 22.62 dBi without changing in the mutual coupling. This is also suitable for 4G Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless mobile applications with reduced power consumption. Design simulation and optimization processes are carried out with the aid of the Agilent Advanced Design System (ADS) electromagnetic simulator that uses the full-wave Method of Moment (MoM) numerical technique.
1. , , "Spectrum analysis for future LTE deployments," Motorola White Paper, 1-8, 2007.
2. Walsh, K. and J. Johnson, "3G/4G multimode cellular front end challenges, Part 1: Spectrum and regulatory issues," RFMD White Paper, No. WP09202, 2009.
3. Bourse, D. and R. Tafzolli, "Beyond 3G/4G ratio access technologies (RATs) and standards," eMobility Tech. Platform White Paper, Ver. 1, Dec. 2007.
4. , , "Transition to 4G: 3GPP broadband evolution to IMT-advanced 4G,", Rysavy Research/3G Americas, Sep. 2010.
5. Rowinki, D., "Meet the real 4G," ReadWrite Mobile, Jan. 2012.
6. , , "Wireless tutorial: Wi-Fi, 3G, 4G, white space, and beyond," , www.octoscope.com.
7. Jie, L. and Z. J. Wu, "The adaptive algorithm of the smart antenna system in 3G wireless communications systems," Proceedings of the Int. Conf. on Signal Process., Beijing, China, Aug. 2002.
8. Daneshrod, B., "MIMO: The next revolution in wireless data communications," Defense Electronics, 57-59, Mar. 20, 2008, www.rfdesign.com.
9. Slyusar, V. I. and I. V. Titov, "Correction of smart antennas receiving channels characteristics for 4G mobile communications," Proceedings of 4th Int. Conf. Antenna Theory and Techniques, Sep. 2003.
10. Foschini, G. J., "Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment when using multi-element antennas," Bell Labs Tech. Jour., 41-59, 1996.
11. Soliman, M. A., W. Swelam, A. Gomaa, and T. E. Taha, "Compact dual-band microstrip patch array antenna for MIMO 4G communication systems," Proceeding of the IEEE Antennas & Propagation Symp., Toronto, Canada, Jul. 2010.
12. Soliman, M. A., W. Swelam, A. Gomaa, and T. E. Taha, "Compact dual-band microstrip patch array antenna for MIMO 4G LTE and WLAN systems," Proceeding of 7th Int. Conf. on Electric. Eng., Cairo, Egypt, 2010.
13. Ysai, S. N., H. H. Hsin, H. K. Dai, and K. T. Chenge, "Accurate slot antenna assembly,", US Patent No. 6373443, 2002. doi:10.1002/mop.20730
14. Wu, J. W., "2.4/5 GHz dual-band triangular slot antenna with compact operation," Microwave and Optical Tech. Lett., Vol. 45, 81-84, 2005. doi:10.1002/mop.20944
15. Hsiao, H. M., J. W. Wu, and Y. D. Wang, "Novel dual-broadband rectangular-slot antenna for 2.4/5 GHz wireless communication," Microwave and Optical Tech. Lett., Vol. 46, 197-201, 2005. doi:10.2528/PIERB08071406
16. Ren, W., "Compact dual-band slot antenna for 2.4/5 GHz WLAN applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 8, 319-327, 2008.
17. Ali, J. K., A. S. Emad, and , "A new fractal based printed slot antenna for dual-band wireless communication applications," PIERS Proceedings, 1518-1521.
19. Van Hese, J., J. Sercu, D. Pissoort, and H. S. Lee, "State of the art in EM software for microwave engineers," Agilent Technologies White Paper, Feb. 2009.
20. Chen, R., K. Xu, and J. Ding, "Acceleration of MoM solver for scattering using graphics processing units (GPUs)," Cross-strait Three Wireless Technology Seminar, 63-66, Oriental Institute of Technology, Tapiei, Taiwan, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08031206
21. Mittra, R. and K. Du, "Characteristic basic function method for iteration-free solution of large method of moment problems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 6, 307-336, 2008.
22. Bhowmik, W. and S. Srivastava, "Optimum design of a 4 x 4 planer Butler matrix array for WLAN application," Jour. of Telcommun., Vol. 2, No. 1, 68-74, Apr. 2010.
23. Soliman, M. A., W. Swelam, A. Gomaa, and T. E. Taha, "Steerable dual-band planar microstrip phased array antenna for 3G and 4G wireless communication systems," Proceeding of the IEEE Antennas & Propagation Symp., Toronto, Canada, Sep. 2011.
24. Madhav, B. T. P., K. Guru Pavani, M. Raveendra, and N. Revanth Teja, "Array antenna performance evaluation based on element spacing between the patches," Int. Jour. of Emerging Tech. and Advanced Eng., Vol. 2, No. 3, 410-417, Mar. 2012.
25. El-Banna, H. H., A. A. Mitkees, A. M. Allam, and M. M. Mokhtar, "Antenna gain optimization for LEO satellites using a genetic algorithm," Proceedings of 6th Int. Conf. on Electric. Eng., Cairo, Egypt, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIER07121503
26. Li, W. T., X. W. Shi, and L. Xu, "Improved GA and PSO called hybrid algorithm for antenna array pattern synthesis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 80, 461-476, 2008.