Vol. 57

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

A Novel Tri-Band Hexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Modified Sierpinski Fractal for Vehicular Communication

By Tapas Mondal, Susamay Samanta, Rowdra Ghatak, and Sekhar Ranjan Bhadra Chaudhuri
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 57, 25-34, 2015


The present paper analyses and documents the merits of incorporating fractal design in microstrip antenna intended to be mounted on and integrated into the design of smart vehicles. A novel design is proposed for a compact tri-band hexagonal microstrip antenna to be integrated with the body of a smart vehicle for short range communication purpose in an Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This antenna can be used at 1.575 GHz of GPS L1 band for vehicle to roadside communication, at 3.71 GHz of mobile WiMAX band (IEEE 802.16e-2005) for blind spot detection and at 5.9 GHz of DSRC band (IEEE 802.11p) for vehicle to vehicle communication. At 3.71 GHz, the two major lobes of the antenna radiation beam, tilted by 35° on both sides from its broadside direction, help the vehicle to detect blind spots efficiently. The largest dimension of the proposed antenna corresponds to the lowest resonating frequency, 1.575 GHz. Compared to the conventional hexagonal patch, the modified Sierpinski fractal proposed herein reduces the overall area, at 1.575 GHz, by 75%, with 5.2 dBi gain. In comparison with other popular fractals, the proposed fractal structure achieves demonstrably better antenna miniaturization. When the antenna is mounted on the vehicle, considered an electromagnetically larger object, the simulated and on-vehicle experimental results show antenna gains of more than 5.5 dBi at 1.575 GHz, 8 dBi at 3.71 GHz and 9 dBi at 5.9 GHz in the desired direction with negligible amount of electromagnetic interference inside the car.


Tapas Mondal, Susamay Samanta, Rowdra Ghatak, and Sekhar Ranjan Bhadra Chaudhuri, "A Novel Tri-Band Hexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Modified Sierpinski Fractal for Vehicular Communication," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 57, 25-34, 2015.


    1. Etou, Y., T. Sugiyama, K. Abe, and T. Abe, "Corner detection using slit rotational edge-feature detector," 2002 IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Vol. 2, 797-800, 2002.

    2. Alonso, J. D., E. Ros Vidal, A. Rotter, and M. Muhlenberg, "Lane-change decision aid system based on motion-driven vehicle tracking," IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 5, 2736-2746, Sep. 2008.

    3. Misnan, M. F., N. H. M. Arshad, R. L. A. Shauri, N. Abd Razak, N. M. Thamrin, and S. F. Mahmud, "Real-time vision based sensor implementation on unmanned aerial vehicle for features detection technique of low altitude mapping," 2013 IEEE Conf. on Systems Process & Control (ICSPC), 289-294, Dec. 13–15, 2013.

    4. Kuwana, J. and M. Itoh, "Dynamic angling side-view mirror for supporting recognition of a vehicle in the blind spot," IEEE Int. Conf. on Control, Automation and Systems, Vol. 2008, 2913-2918, Oct. 14–17, 2008.

    4. Leelaratne, R. and R. Langley, "Multiband PIFA vehicle telematics antennas," IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 54, 477-485, 2005.

    6. Best, S. R., "A comparison of the performance properties of the Hilbert curve fractal and meander line monopole antenna," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 35, No. 4, 258-262, 2002.

    7. Gonzalez-Arbes, J. M. and J. Romeu, "Experiences on monopoles with the same fractal dimension and different topology," IEEE Ant. and Prop. Soc. Int. Symp., Vol. 4, 218-222, Jun. 2003.

    8. Comisso, M., "On the use of dimension and lacunarity for comparing the resonant behavior of convoluted wire antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 96, 361-376, 2009.

    9. Mandelbrot, B. B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1983.

    10. Gianvittorio, J. P. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Fractal antennas: A novel antenna miniaturization technique, and applications," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1, 20-36, Feb. 2002.

    11. Puente-Baliarda, C., J. Romeu, R. Pous, and A. Cardama, "On the behavior of the Sierpinski multiband fractal antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 46, No. 4, 517-524, Apr. 1998.

    12. Kumar, G. and K. P. Ray, Broadband Microstrip Antennas, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 2003.

    13. Chaudhary, R. K., V. V. Mishra, K. V. Srivastava, and A. Biswas, "Multi-layer multi-permittivity dielectric resonator: A new approach for improved spurious free window," 2010 European Microwave Conf. (EuMC), 1194-1197, Sep. 28–30, 2010.

    14. Baliarda, C. P., J. Romeu, and A. Cardama, "The Koch monopole: A small fractal antenna," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 11, 1773-1781, Nov. 2000, Doi: 10.1109/8.900236.

    15. Krishna, D. D., M. Gopikrishna, C. K. Aanandan, P. Mohanan, and K. Vasudevan, "Compact wideband Koch fractal printed slot antenna," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 3, No. 5, 782-789, Aug. 2009, Doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2008.0210.

    16. Mahatthanajatuphat, C., S. Saleekaw, P. Akkaraekthalin, and M. Krairiksh, "A rhombic patch monopole antenna with modified minkowski fractal geometry for UMTS, WLAN, and mobile WiMAX application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 89, 57-74, 2009.

    17. Oraizi, H. and S. Hedayati, "Circularly polarized multiband microstrip antenna using the square and Giuseppe Peano fractals," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 7, 3466-3470, Jul. 2012.