Vol. 64

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Flat Lens Design Using Artificially Engineered Materials

By Ravi Kumar Arya, Shaileshachandra Pandey, and Raj Mittra
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 64, 71-78, 2016


In this work, we present a new systematic technique for the design of a flat lens using modified commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) materials, as opposed to metamaterials (MTMs) that are often required in lens designs based on the Transformation Optics (TO) approach. While lens designs based on Ray Optics (RO) do not suffer from the drawback of having to use metamaterials, they still require dielectric materials that may not be commercially available off-the-shelf. This paper describes a systematic procedure for realizing the desired materials by modifying the COTS types, and illustrates its application with some practical examples.


Ravi Kumar Arya, Shaileshachandra Pandey, and Raj Mittra, "Flat Lens Design Using Artificially Engineered Materials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 64, 71-78, 2016.


    1. Yang, R., W. Tang, and Y. Hao, "A broadband zone plate lens from transformation optics," Opt. Express, Vol. 19, No. 13, 12348-12355, 2011.

    2. Zhang, K., X. Ding, L. Zhang, and Q. Wu, "Anomalous three-dimensional refraction in the microwave region by ultra-thin high efficiency metalens with phase discontinuities in orthogonal directions," New Journal of Physics, Vol. 16, No. 10, 103020, 2016.

    3. Gagnon, N., A. Petosa, and D. A. Mcnamara, "Thin microwave phase-shifting surface lens antenna made of square elements," Electronics Letters, Vol. 46, No. 5, 327-329, Mar. 4, 2010.

    4. Phillion, R. H. and M. Okoniewski, "Lenses for circular polarization using planar arrays of rotated passive elements," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1217-1227, Apr. 2011.

    5. Gagnon, N. and A. Petosa, "Using rotatable planar phase shifting surfaces to steer a high-gain beam," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 61, No. 6, 3086-3092, Jun. 2013.

    6. Zhang, K., X. Ding, D. Wo, F. Meng, and Q. Wu, "Experimental validation of ultra-thin metalenses for N-beam emissions based on transformation optics," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 108, No. 5, 053508, 2016.

    7. Jain, S., M. Abdel-Mageed, and R. Mittra, "Flat-lens design using field transformation and its comparison with those based on transformation optics and ray optics," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 12, 777-780, 2013.

    8. Zhang, Y., R. Mittra, and W. Hong, "A zoned two-layer flat lens design," International Workshop on Antenna Technology (iWAT), 412-415, Mar. 7–9, 2011.

    9. Zhang, Y., R. Mittra, and W. Hong, "On the synthesis of a flat lens using a wideband low-reflection gradient-index metamaterial," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 25, No. 16, 2178-2187, 2011.

    10. Arya, R. K., S. Pandey, and R. Mittra, "Synthesizing broadband low-loss artificially engineered materials (Aka metamaterials) for antenna applications," International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP2015), Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, Nov. 9–12, 2015.

    11. Arya, R. K., S. Pandey, and R. Mittra, "A technique for designing flat lenses using artificially engineered materials," IEEE APS-URSI, Memphis, TN, USA, Jul. 6–12, 2014.

    12. Vardaxogolu, Y., R. Mittra, R. K. Arya, and S. Pandey, "Techniques for synthesizing artificial dielectrics for lens and reflectarray designs," Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), Nov. 10–11, 2014.

    13. Pandey, S., R. K. Arya, and R. Mittra, "Low profile lens and reflectarray design for MM waves," IEEE APS-URSI, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Jul. 19–25, 2015.