Vol. 70

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Reading Distance Estimation for Vehicle RKE Systems

By Han-Joong Kim, Hosung Choo, and Gangil Byun
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 70, 23-31, 2016


In this paper, we propose a systematic simulation-based approach to estimate the reading distance of an RKE system. In our electromagnetic (EM) simulation, a receiving RKE antenna and a vehicle structure, including both exterior and interior, are modeled as piece-wise mesh triangles to obtain accurate radiation characteristics of the antenna mounted inside the vehicle. The reading distance is then estimated by a two-ray propagation model that includes effects of space loss, ground properties, and antenna polarizations for various orientations and heights of handheld devices. The estimated distances are compared to the measurement, and results show that the proposed approach is suitable to replace the measurement-based approach with an average error of less than 2 m.


Han-Joong Kim, Hosung Choo, and Gangil Byun, "Reading Distance Estimation for Vehicle RKE Systems," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 70, 23-31, 2016.


    1. Dar, K., M. Bakhouya, J. Gaber, M. Wack, and P. Lorenz, "Wireless communication technologies for ITS applications," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 48, No. 5, 156-162, May 2010.

    2. Leen, G., D. Heffernan, and A. Dunne, "Digital networks in the automotive vehicle," IEEE Computer Control Eng. Journal, Vol. 10, No. 6, 257-266, Dec. 1999.

    3. Leen, G. and D. Heffernan, "Expanding automotive electronic systems," IEEE Computer, Vol. 35, No. 1, 88-93, Jan. 2002.

    4. Alrabady, A. I and S. M. Mahmud, "Analysis of attacks against the security of keyless-entry systems for vehicles and suggestions for improved designs," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 54, No. 1, 41-50, Jan. 2005.

    5. Brooks, R., S. Sander, J. Deng, and J. Taiber, "Automobile security concerns," IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag., Vol. 4, No. 2, 52-64, June 2009.

    6. Oh, K., B. Kim, and J. Choi, "Novel integrated GPS/RKES/PCS antenna for vehicular application," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., Vol. 15, No. 4, 244-246, Apr. 2005.

    7. Rabinovich, V., B. Al-Khateeb, B. Oakley, and N. Alexandrov, "Small printed meander symmetrical and asymmetrical antenna performances, including the RF cable effect, in the 315MHz frequency band," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 48, No. 9, 1828-1833, Sep. 2006.

    8. Al-Khateeb, B., V. Rabinovich, and B. Oakley, "An active receiving antenna for short range wireless automotive communication," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 43, No. 4, 293-297, Nov. 2004.

    9. Al-Khateeb, B., V. Rabinovich, B. Oakley, and N. Alexandrov, "Compact planar antennas for shortrange wireless automotive communication," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 55, No. 4, 1425-1435, Jul. 2006.

    10. Galehdar, A., D. V. Thiel, and S. G. O’Keefe, "Tapered meander line antenna for maximum efficiency and minimal environmental impact," IEEE Antenna Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 8, 244-247, 2009.

    11. Rabinovich, V., B. Al-Khateeb, B. Oakley, and N. Alexandrov, "A signal and noise-measurement procedure for an antenna/RF receiver combination in a short-range automotive communication system," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 47, No. 2, 116-119, Oct. 2005.

    12. Abou-Jaoude, R. and E. K. Walton, "Numerical modeling of on-glass conformal automobile antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 46, No. 6, 845-852, Jun. 1998.

    13. Muccioli, J. P. and S. S. Awad, "The electromagnetic environment of an automobile electronic system," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 29, No. 3, 245-251, Aug. 1987.

    14. FEKO Suite 6.2, EM Software and Systems, http://www.feko.info, accessed May 5, 2014.

    15. Schaffner, J., H. Song, A. Bekaryan, H. Hsu, M. Wisnewski, and J. Graham, "The impact of vehicle structural components on radiation patterns of a window glass embedded FM antenna," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 59, No. 10, 3536-3543, Oct. 2011.

    16., , AWE Communications, Wave Propagation and Radio Network Planning, http://www.awe-communications.com, accessed May 5, 2014.

    17. Bourdi, T., J. E. Rhazi, F. Boone, and G. Ballivy, "Modelling dielectric-constant values of concrete: an aid to shielding effectiveness prediction and ground-penetrating radar wave technique interpretation," Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 45, No. 40, 1-12, 2012.

    18. Filali, B., F. Boone, J. Rhazi, and G. Ballivy, "Design and calibration of a large open-ended coaxial probe for the measurement of the dielectric properties of concrete," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., Vol. 56, No. 10, 2322-2328, Oct. 2008.

    19. Akkaslı, C., Methods for Path Loss Prediction, 1st Ed., Linnaeus University V¨AXJO, 2009.

    20. Mahafza, B. R., Radar Systems Analysis and Design Using Matlab, 3rd Ed., A Chapman & Hall book Boca Raton, 2012.

    21. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., Wiley Hoboken, 2005.