This paper describes the design and experimental characterization of a circular polarized printed antenna for dual-band WiFi operation at 2.45 GHz and 5.10 GHz. The patch design is based on a combination of slits loading and gap-coupling applied to a disc patch in order to enhance the radiation performances in terms of polarization purity and bandwidth at the two operation frequencies. Experimental validations confirm a maximum gain around 6.0 dB for both 2.45 and 5.10 GHz, as well as an axial ratio as low as 0.5 dB and a return loss exceeding 15 dB on the operating frequencies. These characteristics are suitable for operationing in IEEE802.11x networks.
1. Chizhik, D., J. Ling, and R. A. Valenzuela, "The effect of electric field polarization on indoor propagation," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Universal Personal Communications, 459-462, Florence, Italy, October 1998.
2. Gaspard, I., "Polarization properties of the indoor radio channel," 2015 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems (COMCAS), 1-5, IEEE, 2015.
3. Zhong, Z. and X. Liao, "Circular polarization benefits in outdoor to indoor scenarios for MIMO cellular networks ," 2014 Sixth International Conference on Wireless Communications and Signal Processing (WCSP), 1-5, IEEE, 2014.
4. Rappaport, T. and D. Hawbaker, "Wide-band microwave propagation parameters using circular and linear polarized antennas for indoor wireless channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 40, No. 2, 240-245, 1992. doi:10.1109/26.129185
5. Blanco, M., R. Kokku, K. Ramachandran, S. Rangarajan, and K. Sundaresan, "On the effectiveness of switched beam antennas in indoor environments," Springer Proc. International Conference on Passive and Active Network Measurement, Vol. 57, No. 5, 122-131, 2008. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79232-1_13
6. Gotsis, K. A., K. Siakavara, and J. N. Sahalos, "On the direction of arrival (DoA) estimation for a switched-beam antenna system using neural networks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 5, 1399-1411, 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2016721
7. Maddio, S., M. Passafiume, A. Cidronali, G. Manes, and , "A scalable distributed positioning system augmenting WiFi technology," 2013 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), 1-10, IEEE, 2013.
8. Heidari, A. A., M. Heyrani, A. Cidronali, and M. Nakhkash, "A dual-band circularly polarized stub loaded microstrip patch antenna for GPS applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 92, 195-208, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09032401
9. Ren, W., "Compact dual-band slot antenna for 2.4/5 GHz WLAN applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 8, 319-327, 2008. doi:10.2528/PIERB08071406
10. Zhao, G., F. S. Zhang, Y. Song, Z. B. Weng, and Y. C. Jiao, "Compact ring monopole antenna with double meander lines for 2.4/5 GHz dual-band operation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 72, 187-194, 2007. doi:10.2528/PIER07031405
11. Cidronali, A., G. Collodi, S. Maddio, M. Passafiume, G. Pelosi, and S. Selleri, "Improving phaseless DoA estimation in multipath-impaired scenarios by exploiting dual-band operations," 2016 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium (IMS), 1-4, 2016.
12. Brs, L., N. B. Carvalho, P. Pinho, L. Kulas, and K. Nyka, "A review of antennas for indoor positioning systems," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2012, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/953269
13. Maddio, S., A. Cidronali, and G. Manes, "Smart antennas for direction of arrival indoor positioning applications," Handbook of Position Location: Theory, Practice, and Advances, 319-355, 2011. doi:10.1002/9781118104750.ch10
14. Maci, S., G. B. Gentili, P. Piazzesi, and C. Salvador, "Dual-band slot-loaded patch antenna," IEE Proceedings --- Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 142, No. 3, 225-232, 1995. doi:10.1049/ip-map:19951932
16. Pozar, D. M. and S. M. Duffy, "A dual-band circularly polarized aperture-coupled stacked microstrip antenna for global positioning satellite," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 11, 1618-1625, 1997. doi:10.1109/8.650073
17. Maddio, S., "A compact circularly polarized antenna for 5.8 GHz intelligent transportation system," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 533-536, 2017. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2016.2587771
18. Maddio, S., A. Cidronali, and G. Manes, "A new design method for single-feed circular polarization microstrip antenna with an arbitrary impedance matching condition," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 2, 379-389, 2011. doi:10.1109/TAP.2010.2096177
19. Maddio, S., "A circularly polarized antenna array with a convenient bandwidth/size ratio based on non-identical disc elements," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 57, 47-54, 2015. doi:10.2528/PIERL15081703
20. Garg, R., Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Artech House, 2001.
21. Kumar, G. and K. C. Gupta, "Broad-band microstrip antennas using additional resonators gap-," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 32, No. 12, 1375-1379, 1984. doi:10.1109/TAP.1984.1143264
22. Maddio, S., "A circularly polarized switched beam antenna with pattern diversity for WiFi applications," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 125-128, 2017. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2016.2559948
23. Matekovits, L., M. Mussetta, P. Pirinoli, S. Selleri, and R. Zich, "Improved PSO algorithms for electromagnetic optimization," 2005 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Vol. 2, 33-36, 2005. doi:10.1109/APS.2005.1551728
24. Selleri, S., M. Mussetta, P. Pirinoli, R. E. Zich, and L. Matekovits, "Differentiated meta-PSO methods for array optimization," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 1, 67-75, 2008. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.912942
25. Agastra, E., G. Pelosi, R. Taddei, and S. Selleri, "Taguchi's method for multi-objective optimization problems," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 23, No. 3, 357-366, May 2013. doi:10.1002/mmce.20680