Vol. 80

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Determination of Surface and Sub-Surface Cracks Location in Beams Using Rayleigh-Waves

By Atef Eraky, Rania Samir, Walid S. El-Deeb, and Abdallah Salama
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 80, 233-247, 2018


Structural buildings are vulnerable to many types of damages that can occur through their life period. These damages may cause structure failure or at least decrease its efficiency. Dangerous damages occurring in concrete structures are surface opening cracks or sub-surface cracks. So, the determination of location of these cracks is very important, because the crack location is one of the important factors that affect the degree of danger of the damage. The Rayleigh waves have many advantages, as they can be easily recognized due to the maximum energy of the wave components. So, it was used to determine the crack location in the previous works. In this paper, two different techniques are used to determine the crack location; one of them depends on the healthy case, and the other deals only with the cracked case. Common finite element software (Abaqus) is used to model the numerical simulation, and the experimental test is also performed to verify the obtained numerical results. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results is obtained by employing both techniques to find the crack location.


Atef Eraky, Rania Samir, Walid S. El-Deeb, and Abdallah Salama, "Determination of Surface and Sub-Surface Cracks Location in Beams Using Rayleigh-Waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 80, 233-247, 2018.


    1. Lee, Y. H. and T. Oh, "The measurement of P-, S-, and R-wave velocities to evaluate the condition of reinforced and prestressed concrete slabs," Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2016, 14 pages, Article ID 1548215, 2016, doi:10.1155/2016/1548215.

    2. Rix, G., C. Lai, and S. Foti, "Simultaneous measurement of surface wave dispersion and attenuation curves," Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4, 350-358, 2001.

    3. Joseph, O. and J. Laurence, Characterization of Rayleigh Wave Propagation in Concrete Using Laser Ultrasonic, Springer, 1998.

    4. Liu, P. L., K. H. Lee, T. T. Wu, and M. K. Kuo, "Scan of surface-opening cracks in reinforced concrete using transient elastic waves," NDT & E International, Vol. 34, No. 3, 219-226, 2001.

    5. Lei, W. and F. G. Yuan, "Active damage localization technique based on energy propagation of Lamb waves," Smart Structures and Systems, Vol. 3, No. 2, 201-217, 2006.

    6. Liu, X., L. Bo, Y, Liu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, N. Hu, and M. Deng, "Location identification of closed crack based on Duffing oscillator transient transition," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 100, 384-397, 2017.

    7. Liu, X., L. Bo, Y, Liu, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, N. Hu, and M. Deng, "Detection of micro-cracks using nonlinear lamb waves based on the Duffing-Holmes system," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 406, 175-186, 2017.

    8. Scalerandi, M., S. Gliozzi, and C. Bruno, "Detection and location of cracks using loss of reciprocity in ultrasonic waves propagation," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 131, EL81, 2012.

    9. Soorgee, M. H. and K. A. Yousef, "Crack diagnosis in beams using propagated waves and Hilbert Huang transformation," 4th International Conference on NDT, Hellenic Society for NDT, China, Crete Greece, 2007.

    10. Ben Khalifa, W., K. Jezzine, and S. Grondel, "3D modeling of Rayleigh wave acoustic emission from a crack under stress," Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference, French Acoustic Society, paper 000593, 2627–2632, 2013.

    11. Moser, F., L. Jacobs, and J. Qu, "Modeling elastic wave propagation in waveguides with the finite element method," NDT & E International, Vol. 32, 225-234, 1999.

    12. Olsson, D., "Numerical simulations of energy absorbing boundaries for elastic wave propagation in thick concrete structures subjected to impact loading,", Master of Science Thesis, Umea University, 2012.

    13. Zerwer, A., M. A. Polak, and J. C. Santamarina, "Detection of surface breaking cracks in concrete members using rayleigh waves," Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, JEEG, Vol. 10, No. 3, 295-306, September 2005.

    14. Iodice, M., J. Muggleton, and E. Rustighi, "The detection of vertical cracks in asphalt using seismic surface wave methods," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 744, 2016.

    15. Delrue, S. and V. Aleshin, "2D modeling for acoustic waves in solids with frictional cracks," 23rd French Conference of Mechanics, 2017.

    16. Haw, K. C., M. Shohei, and S. Tomoki, "Characterization of deep surface opening crack in concrete," ACI Material Journal, Vol. 107, No. 3, 306-311, 2010.

    17. Foo, W. L., S. L. Kok, and K. C. Hwa, "Determination and extraction of Rayleigh-waves for concrete cracks characterization based on matched filtering of center of energy," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 363, 303-315, 2016.

    18. Foo, W. L., S. L. Kok, and K. C. Hwa, "Assessment of reinforced concrete surface breaking crack using Rayleigh wave measurement," Journal of Sensors, Vol. 16, No. 3, 337, 2016.

    19. Gang, W., "Beam damage uncertainty quantification using guided Lamb wave responses," Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structure, special issue, DOI: 10.1177/1045389X17704911, 2017.

    20. Dimitrina, K., "Vibration-based methods for detecting a crack in a simply supported beam," Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Vol. 44, No. 4, 69-82, 2014.

    21. Li, B., X. Chen, J. Ma, and Z. He, "Detection of crack location and size in structures using wavelet finite element methods," Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 285, No. 5, 767-782, 2005.

    22. Mehta, P., A. Kureshi, S. Lad, A. Patel, and D. Sharma, "Detection of cracks in a cantilever beam using signal processing and strain energy based model," Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 234, 012008, doi:10.1088/1757-899X/234/1/012008, 2017.

    23. Yong, J., L. Bing, Z. Zhou, and C. Xue, "Identification of crack location in beam structures using wavelet transform and fractal dimension," Shock and Vibration, Vol. 2015, Article ID 832763, 2015.