Vol. 84

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

The Properties of the Electromagnetic Scattering from a Sinusoidal Water Wave

By Yunhua Wang, Yue Yu, Yanmin Zhang, and Honglei Zheng
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 84, 147-160, 2018


Within the framework of the higher-order Kirchhoff approximation, the properties of the electromagnetic scattering from sinusoidal water waves are presented, and the theoretical formulas up to third-order for describing the scattering field and its spectrum are derived. It shows that not only the spectral peaks which correspond to phase velocity of the water wave but also other discrete harmonic peaks can be found from the theoretical spectrum model. And the Doppler shifts of the spectral peaks are all integral multiple of the sinusoidal wave's frequency. For the backscattering field from a sinusoidal wave, the higher-order resonant peaks would also be found at different scattering angles, and the values of these peaks decrease with the scattering angle. On the other hand, the comparisons with the MoM demonstrate that the contributions of the slope-dependent terms can be generally neglected if the amplitude of the sinusoidal wave is small. However, if the waves slope is larger, the impact of the second order scattering becomes obvious and cannot be omitted.


Yunhua Wang, Yue Yu, Yanmin Zhang, and Honglei Zheng, "The Properties of the Electromagnetic Scattering from a Sinusoidal Water Wave," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 84, 147-160, 2018.


    1. Holliday, D., "Resolution of a controversy surrounding the Kirchhoff approach and the small perturbation method in rough surface scattering theory," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 35, No. 1, 120-122, 1987.

    2. Ishimaru, A. and J. S. Chen, "Scattering from very rough metallic and dielectric surfaces: a theory based on the modified Kirchhoff approximation," Waves in Random Media, Vol. 1, No. 1, 21-34, 1991.

    3. Thorsos, E. I., "The validity of the perturbation approximation for rough surface scattering using a Gaussian roughness spectrum," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 86, No. 1, 261-277, 1989.

    4. Soto-Crespo, J. M., M. Nieto-Vesperinas, and A. T. Friberg, "Scattering from slightly rough random surfaces: A detailed study on the validity of the small perturbation method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Vol. 7, No. 7, 1185-1201, 1990.

    5. Mouche, A. A., F. Collard, B. Chapron, K. F. Dagestad, G. Guitton, J. A. Johannessen, V. Kerbaol, and M. W. Hansen, "On the use of Doppler shift for sea surface wind retrieval from SAR," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 50, No. 7, 2901-2909, 2012.

    6. Barrick, D. E., "Extraction of wave parameters from measured HF radar sea-echo Doppler spectra," Radio Sci., Vol. 12, 415-424, 1977.

    7. Johnson, J. T., R. J. Burkholder, J. V. Toporkov, D. R. Lyzenga, and W. J. Plant, "A numerical study of the retrieval of sea surface height profiles from low grazing angle radar data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1641-1650, 2009.

    8. Hwang, P. A., M. A. Sletten, and J. V. Toporkov, "A note on Doppler processing of coherent radar backscatter from the water surface: With application to ocean surface wave measurements," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 115, C03026, 2010.

    9. Chae, C. S. and J. T. Johnson, "A study of sea surface range-resolved Doppler spectra using numerically simulated low-grazing-angle backscatter data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 51, No. 6, 3452-3460, 2013.

    10. Wang, Y. H. and Y. M. Zhang, "The measurement of sea surface profile with X-band coherent marine radar," Acta Oceanol. Sin., Vol. 34, No. 9, 65-70, 2015.

    11. Chapron, B., F. Collard, and F. Ardhum, "Direct measurements of ocean surface velocity from space: Interpretation and validation," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 110, C07008, 2005.

    12. Johannessen, J. A., V. Kudryavtsev, D. Akimov, T. Eldevik, N. Winther, and B. Chapron, "On radar imaging of current features; Part 2: Mesoscale eddy and current front detection," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 110, C07017, 2005.

    13. Kudryavtsev, V., D. Akimov, J. A. Johannessen, and B. Chapron, "On radar imaging of current features. Part 1: Model and comparison with observations," J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 110, C07016, 2005.

    14. Karaev, V., M. Kanevsky, and E, Meshkov, "The effect of sea surface slicks on the Doppler spectrum width of a backscattered microwave signal," Sensors, Vol. 8, 3780-3801, 2008.

    15. Mei, C. C., Michael Stiassnie Theory and Applications of Ocean Surface Waves: Part I --- Linear Aspect, 3rd Ed., World Scientific Publishing, 2017.

    16. Toporkov, J. V. and G. S. Brown, "Numerical simulations of scattering from time-varying randomly rough surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1616-1625, 2000.

    17. Johnson, J. T., J. V. Toporkov, and G. S. Brown, "A numerical study of backscattering from time-evolving sea surfaces: Comparison of hydrodynamic models," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 39, No. 11, 2411-2420, 2001.

    18. Hayslip, A. R., J. T. Johnson, and G. R. Baker, "Further numerical studies of backscattering from time-evolving nonlinear sea surfaces," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, No. 10, 2287-2293, 2003.

    19. Saillard, M., P. Forget, G. Soriano, M. Joelson, P. Broche, and P. Currier, "Sea surface probing with L-band Doppler radar: Experiment and theory," C. R. Physique, Vol. 6, 675-682, 2005.

    20. Zavorotny, V. U. and A. G. Voronovich, "Two-scale model and ocean radar Doppler spectra at moderate- and low-grazing angles," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 46, No. 1, 84-92, 1998.

    21. Romeiser, R. and D. R. Thompson, "Numerical study on the Along-Track interferometric radar imaging mechanism of oceanic surface currents," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Senging, Vol. 38, No. 1, 446-458, 2000.

    22. Wang, Y. H., Y. M. Zhang, and C. F. Zhao, "Doppler spectra of microwave scattering fields from nonlinear oceanic surface at moderate- and low-grazing angles," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1104-1116, 2012.

    23. Wang, Y. H., Y. M. Zhang, and L. X. Guo, "Microwave Doppler spectra of sea echoes at high incidence angles: Influences of large-scale waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 48, 99-113, 2013.

    24. Wang, Y. H., Y. M. Zhang, H. M. Li, and G. Chen, "Doppler spectrum of microwave SAR signals from two-dimensional time-varying sea surface," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 30, No. 10, 1265-1276, 2016.

    25. Miret, D., et al., "Sea surface microwave scattering at extreme grazing angle: Numerical investigation of the Doppler shift," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, Vol. 52, No. 11, 7120-7129, 2014.

    26. Ulaby, F. T., R. K. Moore, and A. K. Fung, Microwave Remote Sensing: Volume II Radar Remote Sensing and Surface Scattering and Emission Theory, Artech House, 1986.

    27. Wen, B. Y. and K. Li, "Frequency shift of the Bragg and non-Bragg backscattering from periodic water wave," Scienti c Reports, 1-7, 2016.

    28. Franceschetti, G., A. Iodice, and D. Riccio, "Scattering from dielectric random fractal surfaces via Method of Moments," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 38, No. 4, 1644-1655, 2000.