Vol. 94

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Design and Characterization of a Broadband Flexible Polyimide RFID Tag Sensor for NaCl and Sugar Detection

By Mohammed Ali Ennasar, Otman El Mrabet, Kanjaa Mohamed, and Mohammad Essaaidi
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 94, 273-283, 2019


In this paper, we present a broadband flexible RFID sensor tag antenna to detect the concentration of aqueous solutions. The proposed RFID tag antenna sensor with a T matching network is based on a printed dipole whose arms are loaded with circular disk patches. The structure is printed on a Kapton polyimide flexible substrate. The sensing mechanism of the RFID tag antenna is based on the change of sensitivity of the RFID tag antenna that occurs with the variation of aqueous solution concentration. The proposed sensor is designed using CST Microwave studio, and its various parameters are optimized in order to have a broadband impedance matching that covers the entire RFID band (860-960 MHz). The experimental setup is small, rapid, contactless, and inexpensive. Results are presented for NaCl and sugar aqueous solutions with concentrations ranging from 0% to 80%.


Mohammed Ali Ennasar, Otman El Mrabet, Kanjaa Mohamed, and Mohammad Essaaidi, "Design and Characterization of a Broadband Flexible Polyimide RFID Tag Sensor for NaCl and Sugar Detection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 94, 273-283, 2019.


    1. Forouzanfar, M. H., et al., "Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990{2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013," Lancet, Vol. 386, No. 10010, 323-2287, 2015.

    2. Webb, M., et al., "Cost effectiveness of a government supported policy strategy to decrease sodium intake: Global analysis across 183 nations," Br. Med. J., Vol. 356, i6699, 2017.

    3. Johnson, R. J., M. S. Segal, Y. Sautin, T. Nakagawa, D. I. Feig, D.-H. Kang, M. S. Gersch, S. Benner, and L. G. Sanchez-Lozada, "Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease," The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 86, No. 4, 899-906, Oct. 2007.

    4. Islam, M. T., M. N. Rahman, M. S. J. Singh, and M. Samsuzzaman, "Detection of salt and sugar contents in water on the basis of dielectric properties using microstrip antenna-based sensor," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 4118-4126, 2018.

    5. Gennarelli, G., S. Romeo, M. R. Scarfi, and F. Soldovieri, "A microwave resonant sensor for concentration measurements of liquid solutions," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1857-1864, May 2013.

    6. Albishi, A. M. and O. M. Ramahi, "Highly sensitive microwaves sensors for fluid concentration measurements," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 28, No. 4, 287-289, Apr. 2018.

    7. Finkenzeller, K., RFID Handbook: `Radio-frequency Identification Fundamentals and Applications', 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 2004.

    8. Marrocco, G., L. Mattioni, and C. Calabrese, "Multiport sensor RFIDs for wireless passive sensing of objects --- Basic theory and early results," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 8, 2691-2702, Aug. 2008.

    9. Occhiuzzi, C., C. Paggi, and G. Marrocco, "Passive RFID strain-sensor based on meander-line antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 12, 4836-4840, Dec. 2011.

    10. Kalansuriya, P., R. Bhattacharyya, and S. Sarma, "RFID tag antenna-based sensing for pervasive surface crack detection," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1564-1570, May 2013.

    11. Kim, S., Y. Kawahara, A. Georgiadis, A. Collado, and M. M. Tentzeris, "Low-cost inkjet-printed fully passive RFID tags for calibration-free capacitive/haptic sensor applications," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 15, No. 6, 3135-3145, Jun. 2015.

    12. Wu, X., et al., "Design of a humidity sensor tag for passive wireless applications," Sensors, Vol. 15, No. 10, 25564-25576, Basel, Switzerland, Oct. 7, 2015.

    13. Caizzone, S., E. Di Giampaolo, and G. Marrocco, "Constrained pole-zero synthesis of phase-oriented RFID sensor antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 64, No. 2, 496-503, Feb. 2016.

    14. Escobedo, P., et al., "Passive UHF RFID tag for multispectral assessment," Sensors, Vol. 16, No. 7, 1085, Basel, Switzerland, Jul. 14, 2016.

    15. Fernandez-Salmeron, J., et al., "Passive UHF RFID tag with multiple sensing capabilities," Sensors, Vol. 15, No. 10, 26769-26782, Basel, Switzerland, Oct. 22, 2015.

    16. Chen, X., L. Ukkonen, and T. Bjorninen, "Passive E-textile UHF RFID-based wireless strain sensors with integrated references," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 16, No. 22, 7835-7836, Nov. 15, 2016.

    17. Bhattacharyya, R., C. Floerkemeier, and S. Sarma, "Low-cost, ubiquitous RFID-tag-antenna-based sensing," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, No. 9, 1593-1600, Sep. 2010.

    18. Buchner, R., G. T. Hefter, and P. M. May, "Dielectric relaxation of aqueous NaCl solutions," J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol. 103, 1-9, 1999.

    19. Malmberg, C. G. and A. A. Maryott, "Dielectric constants of aqueous solutions of dextrose and sucrose," Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, Vol. 45, No. 4, Oct. 1950.

    20., http://www.murata.com/»/media/webrenewal/support/library/catalog/products/k70e.ashx.

    21. Daiki, M., H. Chaabane, E. Perret, S. Tedjni, and T. Aguili, "RFID chip impedance measurement for UHF tag design," PIERS 2011 in Marrakesh Proceedings, 679, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 20-23, 2011.

    22. Miron, D. B., Small Antenna Design, Newnes, Burlington, MA, USA, 2006.

    23. Terman, F. E., Radio Engineer's Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1945.

    24., http://www.triumphlaser.com/laser-cutting-system/.

    25. Qing, X., C. K. Goh, and Z. N. Chen, "Impedance characterization of RFID tag antennas and application in tag co design," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 5, 1268-1274, May 2009.

    26. Kraus, J. D. and R. J. Marhefka, Antennas, 3rd Ed., Chapter 13, McGraw-Hill, 2002.

    27. Deleruyelle, T., P. Pannier, M. Egels, and E. Bergeret, "Dual band mono-chip HF-UHF tag antenna," Proc. IEEE Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp., 1-4, Toronto, Canada, Jul. 2010.

    28. Colella, R., L. Catarinucci, P. Coppola, and L. Tarricone, "Measurement platform for electromagnetic characterization and performance evaluation of UHF RFID tags," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 65, No. 4, 905-914, Apr. 2016.