Vol. 95

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Improvement of Phase Noise Performance in Tracking Array of UAV Signal Based on Mixed Phased/Retrodirective Array

By Alaa Salman, Shokri Almekdad, and Mohamad Alhariri
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 95, 195-207, 2019


An improved mixed phased/retrodirective array is presented. The phase conjugation technique will be achieved in base band instead of in intermediate frequency (IF) band. Canceling the need to the intermediate frequency stage in the receiver will reduce the complexity and cost of the system. The ability to the entire processing of the tracking array function to be applied using software defined radio (SDR) system is added. The effect of the phase errors at each channel is compensated phased array, and the noise performance of the tracking array is improved. Also an expanded analytical study of the noise performance of the array to include the impact of the phase errors on the array performance is presented. The proposed equivalent one-channel model of the N-channel array provides a clear and efficient way to characterize the noise performance of array receiver systems with any amplitude tapering and also considering the phase errors. The improvement provided by the mixed phased/retrodirective array compared to the traditional phased array is evaluated. The of array size on the tracking array performance in the presence of phase error is discussed. A monopulse tracking array is taken as an example.


Alaa Salman, Shokri Almekdad, and Mohamad Alhariri, "Improvement of Phase Noise Performance in Tracking Array of UAV Signal Based on Mixed Phased/Retrodirective Array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 95, 195-207, 2019.


    1. Okcu, H., "Operational requirements of unmanned aircraft systems data link and communication systems," Journal of Advances in Computer Networks, Vol. 4, No. 1, 28-34, March 2016.

    2. Sharma, R. K. and B. B. Soni, "Analysis of a radar system for UAV tracking using MATLAB," International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR), Vol. 7, No. 6, 2454-4698, June 2017.

    3. Uchendu, I. and J. Kelly, "Survey of beam steering techniques available for millimeter wave applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 68, 35-54, 2016.

    4. Fulton, C., M. Yeary, D. Thompson, J. Lake, and A. Mitchell, "Digital phased arrays: Challenges and opportunities," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 104, No. 3, 487-503, March 2016.

    5. Mailloux, R. J., Phased Array Antenna Handbook, 2nd Ed., Artech House Antennas and Propagation Library, 2005.

    6. Amir, Z. and A. A. Bijan, "GA-based approach to phase compensation of large phased array antennas," Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, Vol. 29, No. 4, 723-730, August 2018.

    7. Khmou, Y., S. Safi, and M. Frikel, "Comparative study between several direction of arrival estimation methods," Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, Vol. 1, 41-48, 2014.

    8. Van Trees, H. L., Optimum Array Processing. Part IV of Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2002.

    9. Sajjan, Y. P., R. Krishna, and H. Shahul, "FPGA based digital beam forming for phased array radar," International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, Vol. 3, No. 5, 2091-2730, September-October 2015.

    10. Sri Kavya, K. C., S. K. Kotamraju, B. Naveen Kumar, M. D. N. S. Mounika, S. Singh, and A. Sidda, "Beam pointing accuracy of phased arrays for satellite communication," Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, Vol. 95, No. 10, 2170-2181, May 2017.

    11. Hohne, T. and V. Ranki, "Phase noise in beamforming," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 9, No. 12, 3682-3689, December 2010.

    12. Kim, J., J. Jeong, and S. Jeon, "Improvement of noise performance in phased-array receivers," ETRI Journal, Vol. 33, No. 2, 176-183, April 2011.

    13. Li, W. and B. Liu, "A new method to measure the noise figure of multi-channel radar receiving system," 2017 2nd Joint International Information Technology, Mechanical and Electronic Engineering Conference (JIMEC 2017), Advances in Computer Science Research, Vol. 62, 2352-538X, October 2017.

    14. Salman, A., S. Almekdad, and M. Alhariri, "Auto angular tracking of UAV based on mixed phased/retrodirective array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 92, 215-226, 2019.

    15. Chen, L., Y. C. Guo, X. W. Shi, and T. L. Zhang, "Overview on the phase conjugation techniques of the retrodirective array," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 2010, Article ID 564357, 10 pages, 2010.

    16. Goshi, D. S., K. M. K. H. Leong, and T. Itoh, "Recent advances in retrodirective system technology," 2006 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, IEEE, 2006.

    17. Yang, C. and A.-X. Chen, "A direct conversion phase conjugation arithmetic for retrodirective antenna array system," 2011 4th IEEE International Symposium on Microwave, Antenna, Propagation and EMC Technologies for Wireless Communications, 2011.

    18. Ragasudha, P., B. R. Vikram, and K. Sridhar, "Digital beam forming using software defined radio based adaptive algorithm," International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (IJEAS), Vol. 2, No. 6, 53-58, June 2015.

    19. Unlersen, F. M., E. Yaldiz, and S. T. Imeci, "FPGA based fast bartlett DoA estimator for ULA antenna using parallel computing," Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), Vol. 33, No. 4, 450-458, April 2018.

    20. Balakrishnan, S. and L. T. Ong, "GNU radio based digital beamforming system: BER and computational performance analysis," 23rd European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), IEEE, 2015.

    21. Skolnik, M. I., Introduction to Radar Systems, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, USA, 1980.