We present design and computational simulation of multiband, polarization-independent, and thin frequency-selective structures for microwave frequencies, and their fabrication via a very low-cost inkjet-printing procedure. The structures are constructed by periodically arranging unit cells that consist of U-shaped resonators, while polarization-independency is achieved by applying rotational arrangements. Various configurations are obtained by considering double and single U-shaped resonators, as well as rotational and complementary relationships between the corresponding unit cells on the top and bottom surfaces. We observe that complementary arrangements provide resonances with better quality, particularly by allowing the smaller resonators to operate as desired. Measurements on the fabricated samples demonstrate the feasibility of both effective and very low-cost inkjet-printed frequency-selective structures with multiband and polarization-independent characteristics.
1. Nikitin, P. V., S. Lam, and K. V. S. Rao, "Low cost silver ink RFID tag antennas," Proc. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Soc. Int. Symp., 353-356, 2005.
2. Yang, L., A. Rida, R. Vyas, and M. M. Tentzeris, "RFID tag and RF structures on a paper substrate using inkjet-printing technology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 55, No. 12, 2894-2901, Dec. 2007. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2007.909886
3. Batchelor, J. C., E. A. Parker, J. A. Miller, V. Sanchez-Romaguera, and S. G. Yeates, "Inkjet printing of frequency selective surfaces," Electron. Lett., Vol. 45, No. 1, 7-8, Jan. 2009. doi:10.1049/el:20092713
4. Rida, A., L. Yang, R. Vyas, and M. M. Tentzeris, "Conductive inkjet printed antennas on flexible low-cost paper-based substrates for RFID and WSN applications," IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., Vol. 51, No. 3, 13-23, Jun. 2009. doi:10.1109/MAP.2009.5251188
5. Walther, M., A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Löffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, "Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 95, No. 251107, Dec. 2009.
6. Cooper, J. R., S. Kim, and M. M. Tentzeris, "A novel polarization-independent, free-space, microwave beam splitter utilizing an inkjet-printed, 2-D array frequency selective surface," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 11, 686-688, Jun. 2012. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2012.2204715
7. Maza, A. R., B. Cook, G. Jabbour, and A. Shamim, "Paper-based inkjet-printed ultra-wideband fractal antennas," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 6, No. 12, 1366-1373, Sep. 2012. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2012.0243
8. Subbaraman, H., D. T. Pham, X. Xu, M. Y. Chen, A. Hosseini, X. Lu, and R. T. Chen, "Inkjet-printed two-dimensional phased-array antenna on a flexible substrate," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 12, 170-173, Mar. 2013. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2013.2245292
9. Yoo, M., H. K. Kim, S. Kim, and M. M. Tentzeris, "Silver nanoparticle-based inkjet-printed metamaterial absorber on flexible paper," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 14, 1718-1721, Apr. 2015. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2015.2420712
10. Bin Ashraf, F., T. Alam, and M. T. Islam, "A printed xi-shaped left-handed metamaterial on low-cost flexible photo paper," Materials, Vol. 10, No. 752, Jul. 2017.
11. Zabri, S. N., R. Cahill, G. Conway, and A. Schuchinsky, "Inkjet printing of resistively loaded FSS for microwave absorbers," Electron. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 13, 999-1001, Jun. 2015. doi:10.1049/el.2015.0696
12. Çiftçi, T., B. Karaosmanoglu, and Ö. Ergül, "Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications," IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., Vol. 120, No. 1, Apr. 2016.
13. Güler, S., B. Karaosmanoglu, and Ö. Ergül, "Design, simulation, and fabrication of a novel type of inkjet-printed pixel antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 64, 51-55, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERL16081602
14. Mutlu, F., C. Önol, B. Karaosmanoglu, and Ö. Ergül, "Inkjet-printed cage-dipole antennas for radio-frequency applications," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 11, No. 14, 2016-2020, Nov. 2017. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2016.0486
15. Ibili, H. and Ö. Ergül, "Very low-cost inkjet-printed metamaterials: Progress and challenges," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Workshop Series on Advanced Materials and Processes (IMWSAPM), 2017.
16. Ibili, H., B. Karaosmanoglu, and Ö. Ergül, "Demonstration of negative refractive index with low-cost inkjet-printed microwave metamaterials," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 60, No. 1, 187-191, Jan. 2018. doi:10.1002/mop.30942
17. Çetin, E., M. B. Sahin, and Ö. Ergül, "Array strategies for improving the performances of chipless RFID tags," Proc. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Soc. Int. Symp., 2015-2016, 2018.
18. Demir, M. A., F. Mutlu, and Ö. Ergül, "Design of highly distinguishable letters for inkjet-printed chipless RFID tags," Proc. IEEE-APS Topical Conf. on Antennas and Propagation in Wireless Communications (IEEE APWC), 783-786, 2018.
19. Li, Z., R. Zhao, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, K. B. Alici, E. Colak, H. Caglayan, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Chiral metamaterials with negative refractive index based on four ``U" split ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 97, No. 081901, Aug. 2010.
20. Ekmekci, E., Topalli K., T. Akin, and G. Turhan-Saya, "A tunable multi-band metamaterial design using micro-split SRR structures," Opt. Exp., Vol. 17, No. 18, 16046-16058, Aug. 200. doi:10.1364/OE.17.016046
21. Turkmen, O., E. Ekmekci, and G. Turhan-Sayan, "Nested U-ring resonators: A novel multi-band metamaterial design in microwave region," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 6, No. 10, 1102-1108, Jul. 2012. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2012.0037
22. Bakir, M., K. Delihacioglu, M. Karaaslan, F. Dincer, and C. Sabah, "U-shaped frequency selective surfaces for single- and dual-band applications together with absorber and sensor configurations," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 10, No. 3, 293-300, Feb. 2016. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2015.0341
23. Chew, W. C., J.-M. Jin, E. Michielssen, and J. Song, Fast and Efficient Algorithms in Computational Electromagnetics, Artech House, Boston, 2001.
24. Ergül, Ö and L. Gürel, The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetics Problems, Wiley-IEEE, 2014. doi:10.1002/9781118844977
25. Önol, C., A. Üçüncü, and Ö. Ergül, "Efficient multilayer iterative solutions of electromagnetic problems using approximate forms of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm," IEEE Antennas Wireless Propag. Lett., Vol. 16, 3253-3256, 2017. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2017.2771523
26. Mutlu, F., Design, Simulation, and Fabrication of Low-Cost Inkjet Antennas, MS Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Aug. 2016.