Vertically- and horizontally-polarized antennas were investigated for on-body to on-body (OB2OB), in-body to in-body (IB2IB), and on-body to in-body (OB2IB) wireless propagations at frequencies of 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz. Theoretical formulations, simulations, and measurements were employed to study the effect of source antenna orientation on the attenuation of the radio frequency (RF) wave as it propagates around, inside, and through the body near the torso region. The results show that the vertical polarization is preferred for OB2OB communication, and the horizontal polarization is better for IB2IB communication. Furthermore, the dominant propagation mechanism and optimum antenna excitation for OB2IB communication are identified to be distance-dependent. The horizontally-polarized dipole is preferred at a shorter distance while the vertically-polarized dipole is preferred at a larger distance away from the source. The observed results were explained using the estimated attenuation rates of the different propagation mechanisms.
2. Ryckaert, J., et al., "Channel model for wireless communication around human body," Electronics Letters, Vol. 40, No. 9, 543-544, 2004.
3. Alves, T., B. Poussot, and J. M. Laheurte, "Analytical propagation modeling of BAN channels based on the creeping-wave theory," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 4, 1269-1274, 2011.
4. Bresnahan, D. and Y. Li, "Investigation of creeping wave propagation around the human head at ISM frequencies," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 16, 2767-2770, 2017.
5. Wait, J. R., "On the excitation of electromagnetic surface waves on a curved surface," IRE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 8, No. 4, 445-448, 1960.
6. Xue, D., B. A. Garner, and Y. Li, "Investigation of short-range, broadband, on-body electromagnetic wave propagations," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation., Vol. 10, No. 11, 1182-1188, 2016.
7. Pourhomayoun, M., M. Fowler, and Z. Jin, "A novel method for medical implant in-body localization," 2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 5757-5760, San Diego, CA, USA, 2012.
8. Bhattacharjee, S., S. Maity, S. R. B. Chaudhuri, and M. Mitra, "A compact dual band dual polarized omnidirectional antenna for ON body alications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 67, No. 8, 5044-5053, 2019.
9. Bhattacharjee, S., S. Maity, S. R. B. Chaudhuri, and M. Mitra, "Metamaterial-inspired wideband biocompatible antenna for implantable alications," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 12, No. 11, 1799-1805, 2018.
10. Maity, S., K. R. Barman, and S. Bhattacharjee, "Silicon-based technology: Circularly polarized microstrip patch antenna at ISM band with miniature structure using fractal geometry for biomedical alication," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 60, No. 1, 93-101, 2018.
11. Kurup, D., et al., "In-body path loss model for homogeneous human tissues," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. 54, No. 3, 556-564, 2011.
12. Alomainy, A. and Y. Hao, "Modeling and characterization of biotelemetric radio channel from ingested implants considering organ contents," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 999-1005, 2009.
13. Sayrafian-Pour, K., et al., "A statistical path loss model for medical implant communication channels," 2009 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2995-2999, Tokyo, Japan, 2009.
14. Petrillo, L., et al., "Analytical creeping wave model and measurements for 60 GHz body area networks," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 8, 4352-4356, 2014.
15. Internet resources of biological tissue properties, Available at http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/htmlclie/htmlclie.php.
16. Forbes, R. M., A. R. Cooper, and H. H. Mitchell, "The composition of the adult human body as determined by chemical analysis," J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 203, No. 1, 359-366, 1953.
17. Dielectric phantom recipe generator, Available at https://amri.ninds.nih.gov//cgibin/phantomrecipe.
18. Tamir, T., "Radio wave propagation along mixed paths in forest environments," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 25, No. 4, 471-477, 1977.
19. Li, Y., M. F. Wu, A. E. Yilmaz, and H. Ling, "Investigation of short-range radiowave propagation at HF/VHF frequencies in a forested environment," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 1182-1185, 2009.