In this paper, a novel design of a small printed Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) antenna with a wide impedance bandwidth from 3.05 GHz to 11.65 GHz is introduced. The newly designed UWB MIMO antenna has an isolation enhancement of more than -15 dB between the two elements. This isolation is achieved by inserting a three-line stub on the ground plane between the two radiating elements. In addition, these parallel lines improve the impedance matching and the bandwidth of this structure. Dual band notched characteristics are achieved for the 5G band (3.6 GHz) and the Wi-fi 6E application (6 GHz), by loading the split ring resonator (SRR) on the ground plane at the back of antenna and etching a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) in both the truncated square patch elements, respectively. The SRR and its complement are metamaterials structures, showing the behavior of an LC resonator circuit. The hybrid technique improves impedance matching, bandwidth, minimizes the mutual coupling in UWB frequency range, and delivers dual-notch characteristics. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed antenna with a good agreement are presented. The proposed structure exhibits high performances in terms of envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain (DG), efficiency, total active reflection coefficient (TARC), and channel capacity loss (CCL) except the notched band.
1. Xu, H. and L. Yang, "Ultra-wideband technology: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow," 2008 IEEE Radio Wirel. Symp., 715-718, 2008.
2. Nikookar, H. and R. Prasad, Introduction to Ultra-wideband for Wireless Communications, Springer, Netherlands, 2009.
3. Kuhn, V., Wireless Communications over MIMO Channels: Applications to CDMA and Multiple Antenna Systems, Engl. John Wiley Sons, 2006. doi:10.1002/0470034602
4. Khan, M. S., A. D. Capobianco, S. Asif, A. Iftikhar, B. Ijaz, and B. D. Braaten, "Compact 4×4 UWB-MIMO antenna with WLAN band rejected operation," Electron. Lett., Vol. 51, No. 14, 5-6, 2015, doi: 10.1049/el.2015.1252. doi:10.1049/el.2015.1252
5. Kayabasi, A., A. Toktas, E. Yigit, and K. Sabanci, "Triangular quad-port multi-polarized UWB MIMO antenna with enhanced isolation using neutralization ring," AEU --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 85, 47-53, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2017.12.027. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2017.12.027
6. Nirmal, P. C., A. Nandgaonkar, S. Nalbalwar, and R. K. Gupta, "Compact wideband MIMO antenna for 4G WI-MAX, WLAN and UWB applications," AEUE --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 99, 284-292, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2018.12.008. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.12.008
7. Fletcher, P. N., M. Dean, and A. R. Nix, "Mutual coupling in multi-element array antennas and its influence on MIMO channel capacity," Electron. Lett., Vol. 39, No. 4, 342-344, 2003, doi: 10.1049/el:20030219. doi:10.1049/el:20030219
8. Ali, W. A. E. and A. Ibrahim, "A compact double-sided MIMO antenna with an improved isolation for UWB applications," AEUE --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 82, 7-13, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2017.07.031. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2017.07.031
9. Kumar, M., K. Sachin, and B. K. Kanaujia, "Design, modeling and analysis of dual-feed defected ground microstrip patch antenna with wide axial ratio bandwidth," J. Comput. Electron., Vol. 17, No. 03, 1019-1028, 2018, doi: 10.1007/s10825-018-1173-1. doi:10.1007/s10825-018-1173-1
10. Tiwari, R. N., P. Singh, B. K. Kanaujia, and K. Srivastava, "Neutralization technique based two and four port high isolation mimo antennas for UWB communication," AEUE --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 110, 152828, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2019.152828. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2019.152828
11. Dabas, T., D. Gangwar, B. K. Kanaujia, and A. K. Gautam, "Mutual coupling reduction between elements of UWB MIMO antenna using small size uniplanar EBG exhibiting multiple stop bands," AEUE --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 93, 32-38, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2018.05.033. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.05.033
12. Srivastava, K., A. Kumar, B. K. Kanaujia, S. Dwari, and S. Kumar, "A CPW-fed UWB MIMO antenna with integrated GSM band and dual band notches," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 29, No. 1, 2-6, 2019, doi: 10.1002/mmce.21433.
13. Hassan, M. M., et al., "A novel UWB MIMO antenna array with band notch characteristics using parasitic decoupler," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 34, No. 9, 1225-1238, 2020, doi: 10.1080/09205071.2019.1682063. doi:10.1080/09205071.2019.1682063
14. Raheja, D. K., S. Kumar, and B. K. Kanaujia, "Compact quasi-elliptical-self-complementary four- port super-wideband MIMO antenna with dual band elimination characteristics," AEU --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 114, 153001, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2019.153001. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2019.153001
15. Banerjee, J., A. Karmakar, R. Ghatak, and D. R. Poddar, "Compact CPW-fed UWB MIMO antenna with a novel modified Minkowski fractal defected ground structure (DGS) for high isolation and triple band-notch characteristic," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 31, No. 15, 1550-1565, 2017, doi: 10.1080/09205071.2017.1354727. doi:10.1080/09205071.2017.1354727
16. Mansouri, Z., A. S. Arezomand, S. Heydari, and F. B. Zarrabi, "Dual notch UWB fork monopole antenna with CRLH metamaterial load," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 65, 111-119, 2016. doi:10.2528/PIERC16040711
17. Zarrabi, F. B., A. Pirooj, and K. Pedram, "Metamaterial loads used in microstrip antenna for circular polarization: Review," Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Eng., Vol. 29, No. 10, 1-17, 2019, doi: 10.1002/mmce.21869.
18. Zhang, J., J. Ouyang, K. Z. Zhang, and F. Yang, "A novel dual-band MIMO antenna with lower correlation coefficient," Int. J. Antennas Propag., Vol. 49, No. 10, 2636-2647, 2012, doi: 10.1155/2012/512975.
19. Pierce, J. N. and S. Stein, "Multiple diversity with nonindependent fading," Proc. IRE, Vol. 48, No. 1, 89-104, 1960, doi: 10.1109/JRPROC.1960.287384. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1960.287384
20. Schwartz, M., W. R. Bennett, and S. Stein, Mommunication Systems and Techniques, 9-10, John Wiley Sons, May 1995.
21. Gorai, A., A. Dasgupta, and R. Ghatak, "A compact quasi-self-complementary dual band notched UWB MIMO antenna with enhanced isolation using Hilbert fractal slot," AEU --- Int. J. Electron. Commun., Vol. 94, No. June, 36-41, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.aeue.2018.06.035. doi:10.1016/j.aeue.2018.06.035
22. Jaglan, N., S. D. Gupta, B. K. Kanaujia, S. Srivastava, and E. Thakur, "Triple band notched DG-CEBG structure based UWB MIMO/diversity antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 80, 21-37, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERC17090702
23. Zhou, J. Y., Y. F. Wang, J. M. Xu, and C. Z. Du, "A CPW-fed UWB-MIMO antenna with high isolation and dual band-notched characteristic," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 102, No. January, 27-37, 2021. doi:10.2528/PIERM21012702
24. Zhang, J., L. Wang, and W. Zhang, "A novel dual band-notched CPW-fed UWB MIMO antenna with mutual coupling reduction characteristics," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 90, 21-28, 2020. doi:10.2528/PIERL19122703
25. Debnath, P., A. Karmakar, A. Saha, and S. Huda, "UMB MIMO Slot antenna with minkowski fractal shaped isolators for isolation enhancement," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 75, 69-78, 2018. doi:10.2528/PIERM18090506
26. Zhu, J., B. Feng, B. Peng, S. Li, and L. Deng, "Compact CPW UWB diversity slot antenna with dual band-notched characteristics," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 55, No. 11, 2562-2568, 2015.
27. Kang, L., H. Li, X. Wang, and X. Shi, "Compact offset microstrip-fed MIMO antenna for band-notched UWB applications," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 14, 1754-1757, 2015, doi: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2422571. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2015.2422571
28. Mao, C. X. and Q. X. Chu, "Compact coradiator UWB-MIMO antenna with dual polarization," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 62, No. 9, 4474-4480, 2014, doi: 10.1109/TAP.2014.2333066. doi:10.1109/TAP.2014.2333066
29. Mohan Reddy, S. S., B. Sanjay, K. Aruna Kumari, B. T. P. Madhav, and B. Prudhvi Nadh, "MIMO dual sensing antenna with notch characteristics," J. Phys. Conf. Ser., Vol. 1804, No. 1, 012194, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1804/1/012194. doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1804/1/012194
30. Gao, P., S. He, X. Wei, Z. Xu, N. Wang, and Y. Zheng, "Compact printed uwb diversity slot antenna with 5.5-GHz band-notched characteristics," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., Vol. 13, 376-379, 2014. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2014.2305772
31. Toktas, A., "G-shaped band-notched ultra-wideband MIMO antenna system for mobile terminals," IET Microwaves, Antennas Propag., Vol. 11, No. 5, 718-725, 2017, doi: 10.1049/iet-map.2016.0820. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2016.0820