Vol. 120

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues
2022-06-02

Distributed RSS-Based 2D Source Localization System in Extended Indoor Environment

By Tunguturi Sridher, Achanta Dattatreya Sarma, Perumalla Naveen Kumar, and Kuruva Lakshmanna
Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 120, 159-177, 2022
doi:10.2528/PIERC22021103

Abstract

The evolution of computing and network technologies which involve thousands of devices that are connected wirelessly to serve variety of applications in Internet-of-Things (IoT) draws significant interest in locating the indoor objects. In our paper, we focus on developing a hybrid source positioning technique with off-the-shelf hardware modules. A rectangular corridor with a multipath environment is considered in our work. For better localization accuracy, the corridor is classified into segments with threshold RSS values. Based on the measurement data segment-wise logarithmic regression models are developed, and the performance in terms of Correlation Coefficient (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is evaluated. For localization, basically trilateration is used. However, to overcome the adverse issues due to the indoor environment such as flip ambiguity, uncertainty in range measurements, circumscribing the circle's scenarios, two circle intersection, dynamic circle contraction, and expansion methods are used. Relevant Pseudocode algorithms are presented. The proposed hybrid method significantly improves the localization accuracy. The standard deviation of errors in x and y directions are about 16.75 cm, 66.24 cm in the first segment and 19.75 cm, 60.16 cm in the second segment. The analysis and results are useful in establishing state of the art IoT and future generation 5G networks.

Citation


Tunguturi Sridher, Achanta Dattatreya Sarma, Perumalla Naveen Kumar, and Kuruva Lakshmanna, "Distributed RSS-Based 2D Source Localization System in Extended Indoor Environment," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 120, 159-177, 2022.
doi:10.2528/PIERC22021103
http://www.jpier.org/PIERC/pier.php?paper=22021103

References


    1. Omer, M., Y. Ran, and G. Y. Tian, "Indoor localization systems for passive UHF RFID tag based on RSSI radio map database," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 77, 51-60, 2019.

    2. Mitilineos, S., D. M. Kyriazanos, O. E. Segou, J. N. Goufas, and S. Thomopoulos, "Indoor localisation with wireless sensor networks," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 109, 441-474, 2010.

    3. Obeidat, H. A., et al., "An indoor path loss prediction model using wall correction factors for wireless local area network and 5G indoor networks," Radio Science, Vol. 53, No. 4, 544-564, Apr. 2018, doi: 10.1002/2018RS006536.

    4. Ciuonzo, D., P. S. Rossi, and P. K. Varshney, "Distributed detection in wireless sensor networks under multiplicative fading via generalized score tests," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 8, No. 11, 9059-9071, Jun. 1, 2021, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2021.3056325.

    5. Ciuonzo, D., P. S. Rossi, and P. Willett, "Generalized rao test for decentralized detection of an uncooperative target," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 24, No. 5, 678-682, May 2017, doi: 10.1109/LSP.2017.2686377.

    6. Jiang, J., et al., "A distributed RSS-based localization using a dynamic circle expand- ing mechanism," IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 10, 3754-3766, Oct. 2013, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2013.2258905.

    7. Wang, Z., H. Zhang, T. Lu, and T. A. Gulliver, "A grid-based localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks using connectivity and RSS rank," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 8426-8439, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2804381.

    8. Achanta, H. K., S. Dasgupta, R. Mudumbai, W. Xu, and Z. Ding, "Optimum sensor placement for localization of a hazardous source under log normal shadowing," Numerical Algebra, Control & Optimization, Vol. 9, No. 3, 361-382, 2019, doi: 10.3934/naco.2019024.

    9. Achanta, H. K., S. Dasgupta, and Z. Ding, "Optimum sensor placement for localization in three dimensional under log normal shadowing," Proceedings of the International Congress on Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 1898-1901, 2012.

    10. Sridher, T., A. D. Sarma, P. Naveen Kumar, and K. Lakshmanna, "Results of indoor localization using the optimum pathloss model at 2.4 GHz," URSI GASS 2020, 1-4, Rome, Italy, Aug. 29-Sep. 5, 2020.

    11. Bultitude, R. J. C., "Measurement, characterization and modeling of indoor 800/900 MHz radio channels," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 25, No. 6, 5-12, Jun. 1987.

    12. Sarma, A. D., "The influence of oxygen absorption on frequencies near 60 GHz: A --- Review," IETE Technical Review, Vol. 5, No. 8, 311-317, 1988, doi: 10.1080/02564602.1988.11438335.

    13. Rappaport, T. S., "Characterization of UHF multipath radio propagation inside factory buildings," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 37, No. 8, 1058-1069, Aug. 1989.

    14. Liu, H., H. Darabi, P. Banerjee, and J. Liu, "Survey of wireless indoor positioning techniques and systems," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), Vol. 37, No. 6, 1067-1080, Nov. 2007, doi: 10.1109/TSMCC.2007.905750.

    15. Dai, Z. and F. J. Podd, "A power-efficient BLE augmented GNSS approach to site-specific navigation," 2020 IEEE/ION Position, Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS), 1305-1310, Portland, OR, USA, 2020, doi: 10.1109/PLANS46316.2020.9110133.

    16. Yu, Y., et al., "Precise 3D indoor localization based on Wi-Fi FTM and built-in sensors," IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 7, No. 12, 11753-11765, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2020.2999626.

    17. Zheng, H., X. Zhong, and P. Liu, "RSS-based indoor passive localization using clustering and filtering in a LTE network," 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring), 1-6, Antwerp, Belgium, 2020, doi: 10.1109/VTC2020-Spring48590.2020.9128821.

    18. Aneuryn-Evans, G. and A. Deaton, "Testing linear versus logarithmic regression models," The Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 47, No. 1, 275-291, 1980, JSTOR, Accessed Jul. 12, 2020, www.jstor.org/stable/2297113.

    19. Christensen, R., Log-Linear Models and Logistic Regression, 2 Edition, Springer, 1998.

    20. Bendat, J. S. and A. G. Piersol, Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 4th Edition, Mar. 2010.

    21. Zhou, B., Q. Chen, H. Wymeersch, P. Xiao, and L. Zhao, "Variational inference-based positioning with nondeterministic measurement accuracies and reference location errors," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 16, No. 10, 2955-2969, Oct. 1, 2017, doi: 10.1109/TMC.2016.2640294.

    22. Yang, Z. and Y. Liu, "Quality of trilateration: Confidence-based iterative localization," IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 21, No. 5, 631-640, May 2010, doi: 10.1109/TPDS.2009.90.

    23. Oyie, N. O. and T. J. O. Afullo, "A comparative study of dual-slope path loss model in various indoor environments at 14 to 22 GHz," 2018 Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS-Toyama), 121-128, Toyama, Japan, Aug. 1-4, 2018.

    24. Maccartney, G. R., T. S. Rappaport, S. Sun, and S. Deng, "Indoor office wideband millimeter- wave propagation measurements and channel models at 28 and 73 GHz for ultra-dense 5G wireless networks," IEEE Access, Vol. 3, 2388-2424, 2015, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2015.2486778.

    25. Bultitude, R. J. C., P. Melancon, H. Zaghloul, G. Morrison, and M. Prokki, "The dependence of indoor radio channel multipath characteristics of transmit/receiver ranges," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 11, No. 7, 979-990, Sep. 1993, doi: 10.1109/49.233211.

    26. Ke, W., J. Jin, H. Xu, K. Yu, and J. Shao, "Online-calibrated CS-based indoor localization over IEEE 802.11 wireless infrastructure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 70, 73-81, 2016.

    27. Plets, D., et al., "Coverage prediction and optimization algorithms for indoor environments," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 1-23, Print, 2012.

    28. Whitman, G. M., K.-S. Kim, and E. Niver, "A theoretical model for radio signal attenuation inside buildings," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 44, No. 3, 621-629, Aug. 1995, doi: 10.1109/25.406630.

    29. ITUR-R P.2040-1, "Effects of building materials and structures on radidowave propagation above about 100 MHz,", Jul. 2015.

    30. Oyie, N. O. and T. J. O. Afullo, "Measurements and analysis of large-scale path loss model at 14 and 22 GHz in indoor corridor," IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 17205-17214, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2802038.

    31. Batalhaet, D. S., et al., "Indoor corridor and office propagation measurements and channel models at 8, 9, 10 and 11 GHz," IEEE Access, Vol. 7, 55005-55021, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2911866.

    32. Su, H. and M. L. Berenson, "Comparing tests of homoscedasticity in simple linear regression," JSM Math Stat., Vol. 4, No. 1, 1017, 2017.

    33. Lasla, N., M. F. Younis, A. Ouadjaout, and N. Badache, "An effective area-based localization algorithm for wireless networks," IEEE Trans. Comput., Vol. 64, No. 8, 2103-2118, Aug. 2015.

    34., , https://www.statisticshowto.com/heteroscedasticity-simple-definition-examples/.

    35., , http://www.ambrsoft.com/TrigoCalc/Circles2/circle2intersection/CircleCircleIntersection.htm.

    36., , https://www.espressif.com/sites/default/files/documentation/0a-esp8266ex_datasheet_en.pdf.