In this paper, a novel via-less balanced composite right/left handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) unit cell using defected ground structure (DGS) is presented, and a resonant type antenna based on the proposed CRLH-TL unit cell is designed. Equivalent circuit model is developed to analyze the CRLH-TL unit cell antenna. The resonant frequency is studied, and the resonant frequency tuned by adjusting the dimension of the antenna patch is simulated. The antenna simulated and measured results are presented. The measured central frequency of the proposed antenna is 5.55 GHz. A peak gain of 6.7 dBi with an efficiency of 75.6% is obtained at the central frequency.
2. Cao, W.-Q., B.-N. Zhang, A. J. Liu, D.-S. Guo, T.-B. Yu, and Y. Wei, "A dual-band microstrip antenna with omnidirectional circularly polarized and unidirectional linearly polarized characteristics based on metamaterial structure," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 26, No. 2-3, 274-283, 2012.
3. Yoo, S. and S. Kahng, "CRLH ZOR antenna of a circularCRLH ZOR antenna of a circular microstrip patch capacitively coupled to a circular shorted ring," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 25, 15-26, 2012.
4. Shu, P. and Q. Feng, "Compact tri-band monopole antenna with a parasitic E-shaped strip for WLAN/Wimax applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 32, 53-63, 2012.
5. Hasar, U. C., J. J. Barroso, M. Ertugrul, C. Sabah, and B. Cavusoglu, "Application of a useful uncertainty analysis as a metric tool for assessing the performance of electromagnetic properties retrieval methods of bianisotropic metamaterials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 128, 365-380, 2012.
6. Liu, X., S. N. Burokur, A. de Lustrac, G. Sabanowski, and G. P. Piau, "Compact base station antennas using metamaterials," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 33, 43-53, 2012.
7. Smith, D., et al., "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Physical Review B, Vol. 65, No. 19, 195104, 2002.
8. Ahn, D., et al., "A design of the low-pass filter using the novel microstrip defected ground structure," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 1, 86-93, 2001.
9. Xiao, J. K. and Y. F. Zhu, "New U-shaped DGS bandstop filters," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 25, 179-191, 2012.
10. Zarifi, D., H. Oraizi, and M. Soleimani, "Improved performance of circularly polarized antenna using semi-planar chiral metamaterial covers," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 123, 337-354, 2012.
11. Moghadas, H. and A. Tavakoli, "A semi-numerical design algorithm for defected ground structure in microstrip antenna arrays," 2012 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (APSURSI), 1-2, 2012.
12. Chang, K., et al., "Investigation of microwave negative refractive index (NRI) transmission lines incorporating tunnel diodes," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 671-674, 2012.
13. Zhang, J., S. Cheung, and T. Yuk, "Compact composite right/left-handed transmission line unit cell for the design of true-time-delay lines," lines," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 6, No. 8, 893-898, 2012.
14. Gong, J. Q., C. H. Liang, and B. Wu, "Compact dual-band 90o couplers with customizable power division ratios utilizing SCRLH transmission lines," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 36, 29-40, 2013.
15. Su, P., et al., "An improved CRLH wide-band ¯lter using CSRRS with high stop band rejection," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 32, 119-127, 2012.
16. Lin, X., P. Su, Y. Fan, and Z. B. Zhu, "Improved CRLH-TL with arbitrary characteristic impedance and its application in hybrid ring design," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 124, 249-263, 2012.
17. Kang, W., G. Yang, H. Wang, C. Miao, and W. Wu, "Miniaturized dual-mode composite-right/left-handed line resonator filter with wide harmonic suppression," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 28, 73-81, 2012.
18. Liu, S. X. and Q. Feng, "Compact multi-band loop antennas using CPW-based CRLH quarter-wave type resonators," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 28, 47-60, 2012.
19. Liu, C. Y., Q. X. Chu, and J. Q. Huang, "A planar D-CRLH and its application to bandstop filter and leaky-wave antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 19, 93-102, 2010.
20. Lim, S., C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "A reflectodirective system using a composite right/left-handed (CRLH) leaky-wave antenna and heterodyne mixing," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 14, No. 4, 183-185, 2004.
21. Mok, S., S. Kahng, and Y. Kim, "A wide band metamaterial ZOR antenna of a patch coupled to a ring mushroom," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 26, No. 13, 1667-1674, 2012.
22. Chen, P. W. and F. C. Chen, "Asymmetric coplanar waveguide (ACPW) zeroth-order resonant (ZOR) antenna with high efficiency and bandwidth enhancement," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 11, 527-530, 2012.
23. Singh, G. K., R. K. Chaudhary, and K. V. Srivastava, "A compact zeroth order resonating antenna using complementary split ring resonator with mushroom type of structure," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 28, 139-148, 2012.
24. Geng, L., G.-M. Wang, C.-X. Zhang, and Y.-W. Wang, "Fractal-based composite right/left-handed transmission line and its applications in miniaturized negative-order resonant antennas," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 36, 155-162, 2013.
25. Cao, W.-Q., A. J. Liu, B.-N. Zhang, T.-B. Yu, D.-S. Guo, Y. Wei, and Z.-P. Qian, "Multi-band multi-mode microstrip circular patch antenna loaded with metamaterial structures," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 26, No. 7, 923-931, 2012.
26. Ibrahim, A. A., A. M. E. Safwat, and H. El-Hennawy, "Triple-band microstrip-fed monopole antenna loaded with CRLH unit cell," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 1547-1550, 2011.
27. Caloz, C. , T. Itoh, and A. Rennings, "CRLH metamaterial leaky-wave and resonant antennas," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 50, No. 5, 25-39, 2008.
28. Ibrahim, A. and A. Safwat, "Microstrip-fed monopole antennas loaded with CRLH unit cells," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 9, 4027-4036, 2012.
29. Raslan, A., A. Ibrahim, and A. Safwat, "Resonant type antennas loaded with CRLH unit cell," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. PP, No. 99, Early Access Article, 2012.
30. Upadhyay, D. K. and S. Pal, "An improved full scanning antenna using left-handed materials," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 55, 261-265, 2013.
31. Ryu, Y. H., et al., "Multiband antenna using +1, -1, and 0 resonant mode of DGS dual composite right/left handed transmission line," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 51, 2485-2488, 2009.
32. Ryu, Y.-H., et al., "DGS dual composite right/lefthanded transmission line," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 18, 434-436, 2008.
33. Caloz, C. and T. Itoh, Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Transmission Line Theory and Microwave Applications, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2005.