This paper presents a study and analysis of a high performance microstrip branch-line 3dB hybrid coupler (BLHC) operating at 2.2 GHz for Long Term Evolution (LTE) application. High and low impedance meander lines are used to miniaturize the conventional Branch Line Hybrid Coupler. A prototype of the proposed coupler is fabricated and tested using a Rohde and Schwarz ZVB 20 vector network analyzer. The measured results agree well with the simulated ones.
1. Zheng, N., L. Zhou, and W. Y. Yi, "A novel dual-band Π-shaped branch-line coupler with steppedimpedance stubs," Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 25, 11-20, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIERL11032915
2. Pozar, D. M., Microwave Engineering, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
3. Zheng, S. and W. Chan, "Differential RF phase shifter with harmonic suppression," IEEE Trans. Ind. Elctron., Vol. 61, No. 6, 2891-2899, 2014. doi:10.1109/TIE.2013.2273478
4. Chen, C., H. Wu, and W. Wu, "Design and implementation of a compact planar 4 × 4 microstrip butler matrix for wideband application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 24, 43-55, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIERC11072614
5. Wan, X., W. Y. Yin, and K. L. Wu, "A dual-band coupled-line coupler with an arbitrary coupling coefficient," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 60, No. 4, 945-951, 2012. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2012.2185949
6. Xu, H. X., G. M. Wang, and J. G. Liang, "Novel CRLH TL metamaterial and compact microstrip branch-line coupler application," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 20, 173-186, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIERC10121805
7. Wu, G. C., G. M. Wang, L. Z. Hu, Y.-W. Wang, and C. Liu, "A miniaturized triple-band branchline coupler based on simplified dual-composite right/left-handed transmission line," In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 39, 1-10, 2013.
8. Ji, D. C., B. Wu, X. Y. Ma, and J. Z. Chen, "A compact dual-band planar branch-line coupler," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 32, 43-52, 2012. doi:10.2528/PIERC12070901
9. Moubadir, M., H. Aziz, N. Amar Touhami, M. Aghoutane, K. Zeljami, and A. Tazon, "Design and implementation of a technology planar 4×4 butler matrix for networks application," International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 10, No. 6, 446-451, 2015.
10. Moubadir, M., H. Aziz, N. Amar Touhami, M. Aghoutane, K. Zeljami, and A. Tazon, Design and implementation of a technology planar 8 × 8 butler matrix with square truncated edge-fed array antenna for WLAN networks application, The International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications, 978-1-4673-8224-3 IEEE, 2015.
11. Jizat, N. M., S. K. A. Rahim, T. A. Rahman, and M. R. Kamarudin, "Miniaturize size of dual band branch-line coupler by implementing reduced series arm of coupler with stub loaded," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 53, No. 4, Apr., 2011. doi:10.1002/mop.25869
12. Wong, Y. S., S. Y. Zheng, and W. S. Chan, "Multifolded bandwidth banch line coupler with filtering characteristic using coupled port feeding," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 17-35, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11041401
13. Liu, G. Q. and L. S. Wu, "A compact microstrip rat-race coupler with modified lange and T-shaped arms," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, 509-523, 2011. doi:10.2528/PIER11032003
14. Lu, K., G. M. Wang, C. X. Zhang, and Y. W. Wang, "Design of miniaturized branch-line coupler based on novel spiral-based resonators," ournal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 25, No. 16, 2244-2253, 2011. doi:10.1163/156939311798147024
15. Yang, T., M. Tamura, and T. Itoh, "Compact hybrid resonator with series and shunt resonances used in miniaturized filters and balun filters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., Vol. 58, No. 2, 390-402, 2010. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2009.2038662
16. Sheta, A. F., A. Mohra, and S. F. Mahmoud, "A new class of miniature quadrature couplers for MIC and MMICs applications," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., Vol. 43, No. 3, 215-219, 2002. doi:10.1002/mop.10421
17. Grover, W. F., Inductance Calculations, Working Formulas and Tables, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, 1946, reprinted by Dover Publications, New York, 1954.
18. Stojanovic, G., L. Zivanov, and M. Damjanovic, "Compact form of expressions for inductance calculation of meander inductors," Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 1, 57-68, 2004. doi:10.2298/SJEE0403057S
19. Collado, C., A. Grau, and F. D. Flaviis, "Dual band planar quadrature hybrid with enhanced bandwidth response," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 54, No. 1, 180-188, 2006. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2005.860306
20. Tsai, K. Y., H. S. Yang, J. H. Chen, and Y. J. E. Chen, "A miniaturized 3 dB branch-line hybrid coupler with harmonics suppression," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 21, No. 10, 2011. doi:10.1109/LMWC.2011.2164901
21. Liao, S. S. and J. T. Peng, "Compact planar microstrip branch-line couplers using the quasi lumped elements approach with non symmetrical and symmetrical T-shaped structure," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 54, No. 9, 2006. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2006.880650