This work is concerned with generating the digital elevation models (DEMs) from the SAR images of the region of interest using multiple sensor arrays that are fixed on the distributed satellites. We present an exact estimate of the unwrapped phase and the relationship between the unwrapped phase and the terrain height. The optimum scheme that jointly processes the signals from all sensors is based on the model of the multibaseline joint block vector. The method can simultaneously coregister the SAR images, phase unwrapping and DEM generation in the presence of the large coregistration errors. The performance of our approach is verified by a series of simulation experiments based on the distributed sensor arrays.
2. Xu, W. and I. Cumming, "A region-growing algorithm for InSAR phase unwrapping," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 37, No. 1, 124-134, 1999.
3. Goldstein, M., H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, "Satellite radar interferometry: Two-dimensional phase unwrapping," Radio Science, Vol. 23, 713-720, 1988.
4. Ghiglia, D. C. and D. E.Wahl, "Interferometric synthetic aperture radar terrain elevation mapping from multiple observations," Proc. 6th IEEE Digital Signal Process. Workshop, 33-36, Albuquerque, NM, 1994.
5. Martorella, M. and B. Littleton, "Multibaseline cross-track SAR interferometry using interpolated arrays," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron Syst., Vol. 41, No. 4, 1472-1481, 2005.
6. Kim, M. G. and H. D. Griffiths, "Phase unwrapping of multibaseline interferometry using Kalman filtering," Proc. 7th IEE Int. Conf. Image Process. and Appl., 813-817, London, U.K., 1999.
7. Fornaro, G., et al., "Maximum likelihood multi-baseline SAR interferometry," Proc. IEE-Radar Sonar Navig., Vol. 153, No. 3, 279-288, 2006.
8. Ferretti, A., C. Prati, and F. Rocca, "Multibaseline InSAR DEM reconstruction: The wavelet approach," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 37, No. 2, 705-715, 1999.
9. Qu, Y., G. S. Liao, S. Q. Zhu, and X. Y. Liu, "Hybrid array antenna for broadband millimeter-wave applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 1-10, 2008.
10. Li, W. T. and X. W. Shi, "An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm for pattern synthesis of phased arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 82, 319-332, 2008.
11. Zitova, B. and J. Flusser, "Image registration methods: A survey," Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 21, No. 11, 977-1000, 2003.
12. Brown, L. G., "A survey of image registration techniques," ACM Computing Surveys, 326-376, 1992.
13. Scheiber, R. and A. Moreira, "Coregistration of interferometric SAR images using spectral diversity," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 38, No. 5, 2179-2191, 2000.
14. Moccia, A., S. Esposito, and M. Derrico, "Height measurement accuracy of ERS-1 SAR interferometry," EARSel Adv. Remote Sens., Vol. 3, No. 1, 94-108, 1994.
15. Rosen, P. A., S. Hensley, I. R. Joughin, F. K. Li, S. N. Madsen, E. Rodriguez, and R. M. Goldstein, "Synthetic aperture radar interferometry," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 88, No. 3, 333-382, 2000.
16. Bamler, R. and P. Hartl, "Synthetic aperture radar interferometry," Inv. Prob., Vol. 14, 1-54, 1998.
17. Lorenz, R. G. and S. P. Boyd, "Robust minimum variance beamforming," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 53, No. 5, 1684-1696, 2005.
18. Vorobyov, S., et al., "Robust adaptive beamforming using worst-case performance optimization: A solution to the signal mismatch problem," IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 51, 313-324, 2003.
19. Zhang, X. and D. Xu, "Deterministic blind beamforming for electromagnetic vector sensor array," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 363-377, 2008.
20. Panduro, M. A., "Design of beam-forming networks for scannable multi-beam antenna arrays using corps," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 84, 173-188, 2008.
21. Gu, Y. J., Z. G. Shi, and K. S. Chen, "Robust adaptive beamforming for a class of gaussian steering vector mismatch," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 81, 315-328, 2008.
22. Mao, Z. J., et al., "InSAR interferometric phase estimation based on optimum data vector," Proc. IET - Radar Sonar Navig..
23. Mao, Z. J., et al., "Optimum data vector approach to multibaseline SAR interferometry phase unwrapping," IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Letts., Submitted for publication.
24. Reed, I. S., J. D. Mallett, and L. E. Brennan, "Rapid convergence rate in adaptive array," IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron Syst., Vol. 10, 853-863, 1974.
25. Li, Z. F., Z. Bao, and Z. Y. Suo, "A joint image coregistration, phase noise suppression, and phase unwrapping method based on subspace projection for multibaseline InSAR systems ," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., Vol. 45, No. 3, 584-591, 2007.