An electromagnetic inversion method is proposed for the reconstruction of lossy dielectric slabs. The inversion is done using particle swarm optimization hybridized with Quasi-Newton algorithm. The inversion process is applied to reconstruct dielectric slabs with discrete or continuous profiles. Accurate reconstruction of lossy dielectric slabs is obtained from inversion of reflection coefficient data of normally incident plane waves in the specified frequency range. The proposed algorithm is also tested using noisy data and showed satisfactory performance.
2. Casagranda, A., D. Franceschini, A. Massa, P. M. Van Den Berg, A. Abubakar, and T. M. Habashy, "The multi-frequency diagonalized contrast source method for electromagnetic inversion," Proceedings of the European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2006 (ESA SP-626), Nice, France, November 6-10, 2006.
3. Mertzanides, I. C., I. C., G. N. Tsokas, and J. N. Sahalos, "An analytical method for determining the characteristics of two-layered media," Proceedings of the Second International Symposium of Trans Black Sea Region on Applied Electromagnetism, 120, 2000.
4. Hashish, E. A., "Forward and inverse scattering from an inhomogeneous dielectric slab," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 17, No. 5, 719-736, 2003.
5. Caviglia, G. and A. Morro, "Inversion of reflection data in an isotropic multilayered medium," Journal of Acta Mechanica, Vol. 189, No. 1-4, 65-72, March 2007.
6. Nakhkash, M., Y. Huang, and M. T. C. Fang, "Application of the multi-level single-linkage method to one-dimensional electromagnetic inverse scattering problem," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 47, No. 11, 1658-1668, November 1999.
7. Avriel, M., Non Linear Programming: Analysis and Methods, Dover Publications, New York, 2003.
8. Abubakar, A., T. M. Habashy, V. L. Druskin, and L. Knizhnerman, "An enhanced Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm using a dual-optimal grid approach," IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 44, 1419-1427, June 2006.
9. Haber, E., D. W. Oldenburg, and R. Shekhtman, "Inversion of time domain three dimensional electromagnetic data," Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 171, No. 2, 550-564, November 2007.
10. Caorsi, S., A. Costa, and M. Pastorino, "Microwave imaging within the second-order Born approximation: Stochastic optimization by a genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 1, 22-31, 2001.
11. Chiu, C.-C. and W.-T. Chen, "Electromagnetic imaging for an imperfectly conducting cylinder by the genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 48, No. 11, 1901-1905, 2000.
12. Donelli, M., D. Franceschini, P. Rocca, and A. Massa, "Three dimensional microwave imaging problems solved through an e±cient multiscaling particle swarm optimization," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 47, 1467-1481, 2009.
13. Huang, T. and A. S. Mohan, "Application of particle swarm optimization for microwave imaging of lossy dielectric objects," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 852-855, 2005.
14. Huang, C. H., C. C. Chiu, C. L. Li, and K. C. Chen, "Time domain inverse scattering of a two-dimensional homogeneous dielectric object with arbitrary shape by particle swarm optimization," Progress In Electromagnetic Research, Vol. 82, 381-400, 2008.
15. Emad, A. M. and E. A. Hashish, One dimensional electromagnetic inversion using particle swarm optimization, Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth National Radio Science Conference，NRSC, Vol. B17, 1-8, March 13-15, 2007.
16. Van Den Bergh, F. and A. P. Engelbrecht, "A study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories," Information Sciences, Vol. 176, 937-971, 2006.
17. Jiang, M., Y. P. Luo, and S. Y. Yang, "Stochastic convergence analysis and parameter selection of the standard particle swarm optimization algorithm," Information Processing Letters, Vol. 102, No. 1, 8-16, April 15, 2007.
18. Samii, Y. R., Genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) in engineering electromagnetics, International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications, ICECom 2003, Dubrovnik, Croatia, October 2003.
19. Eberhart, R. C. and Y. H. Shi, Comparison between genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Evolutionary Programming, 611-616, 1998.
20. Wei, B. J., E. Simsek, C. Yu, and Q. H. Liu, "Three-dimensional electromagnetic nonlinear inversion in layered media by a hybrid diagonal tensor approximation: Stabilized biconjugate gradient fast Fourier transform method," Journal of Waves in Random and Complex Media, Vol. 17, No. 2, 129-147, May 2007.
21. Franceschini, G., D. Franceschini, M. Donelli, R. Azaro, and A. Massa, Electromagnetic inversion of amplitude-only data through a two-step strategy, Proceedings of the European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2006 (ESA SP-626), Nice, France, November 6-10, 2006.
22. Jostingmeier, A., T. Meyer, and A. S. Omar, Microwave imaging of biological tissues, Antennas and Propagation Society, IEEE International Sym, Vol. 1, 234-237, Boston, MA, USA, 2001.
23. Kennedy, J. and R. C. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization," Proceedings of IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Vol. 1942, No. 1948, IEEE Press, 1995.
24. Shi, Y. and R. Eberhart, "Parameter selection in particle swarm optimization," Evolutionary Programming VII: Proceedings of EP, 591-600, 1998.
25. Liu, Y., Z. Qin, Z. W. Shi, and J. Lu, "Center particle swarm optimization," Journal of Neurocomputing, Vol. 70, No. 4-6, 672-679, January 2007.