This paper presents a novel stochastic microwave method for the detection, location and reconstruction of electric properties of breast cancer in a simplified breast phantom. The method is based on the inversion of time domain data. The problem is recast as an optimization one by defining a suitable cost function which is then minimized using an efficient evolutionary algorithm. Selected numerical simulations of a simplified three dimensional breast model and a realistic numerical phantom based on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) are carried out to assess the capabilities of the method. The results obtained show that the proposed method is able to reconstruct the properties of a tumor-like inclusion to a reasonable degree of accuracy.
1. Tang, J., R. M. Rangayyan, J. Xu, I. El Naqa, and Y. Yang, "Computer-aided detection and diagnosis of breast cancer with mammography: Recent advances," IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., Vol. 13, No. 2, 236-251, 2009. doi:10.1109/TITB.2008.2009441
2. Fang, Q., et al., "Initial clinical experience with microwave breast imaging in woman with normal mammography," Academic Radiology, Vol. 14, No. 2, 207-218, 2007. doi:10.1016/j.acra.2006.10.016
3. O'Halloran, M., E. Jones, and M. Glavin, "Quasi-multistatic MIST beamforming for the early detection of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 57, No. 4, 830-840, 2010. doi:10.1109/TBME.2009.2016392
4. Klemm, M., I. J. Craddock, J. A. Leendertz, A. Preece, and R. Benjamin, "Radar-based breast cancer detection using a hemispherical antenna array experimental results," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 57, No. 6, 1692-1704, 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2019856
5. Kurrant, D. J. and E. Fear, "An improved technique to predict the time-of-arrival of a tumor response in radar-based breast imaging," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 56, No. 9, 1200-1209, 2009. doi:10.1109/TBME.2008.2011914
6. Li, X., S. Hagness, D. B. Van Deen, and D. Van Den Weide, "Experimental investigation of microwave imaging via space-time beamforming for breast cancer detection," Proc. IEEE International Microwave Symposium, Vol. 1, 379-382, 2003.
7. Bond, E. J., X. Li, S. C. Hagness, and B. D. Van Veeenm, "Microwave imaging via space-time beamforming for early detection of breast cancer," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 51, No. 8, 1690-1705, 2003. doi:10.1109/TAP.2003.815446
8. Fear, E. C., X. Li, S. C. Hagness, and M. A. Stuchly, "Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: Localization of tumors in three dimensions," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 49, No. 8, 812-822, 2002. doi:10.1109/TBME.2002.800759
9. Nilavalan, R., I. J. Craddock, A. Preece, J. Leendertz, and R. Benjamin, "A wideband planar antenna for in-body imaging," IEEE AP-S International Symposium and USNC/URSI National Radio Science Meeting, Washington DC, Jul. 2005.
10. Klemm, M., J. A. Leendertz, D. Gibbins, I. Craddock, A. Preece, and R. Benjamin, "Microwave radar-based breast cancer detection: Imaging in inhomogeneous breast phantoms," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 8, 1349-1352, 2009. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2009.2036748
11. Chen, Y., I. Craddock, P. Kosmas, M. Ghavami, and P. Rapajic, "Multiple-input multiple-output radar for lesion classification in ultrawideband breast imaging," IEEE Journal of Signal Processing, Vol. 4, No. 1, 187-201, 2010.
12. Rubk, T., P. M. Meaney, P. Meincke, and K. D. Paulsen, "Nonlinear microwave imaging for breast-cancer screening using GaussNewton's method and the CGLS inversion algorithm," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 55, No. 8, 2320-2331, 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2007.901993
13. Meaney, P., M. W. Fanning, R. M. Di Florio-Alexander, P. A. Kaufman, S. D. Geimer, T. Zhou, and K. D. Paulsen, "Microwave tomography in the context of complex breast cancer imaging," 2010 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 3398-3401, 2010. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2010.5627932
14. Fang, Q., P. Meaney, S. Geimer, A. Streltsov, and K. Paulsen, "Microwave image recostruction from 3-D field coupled to 2-D parameter estimation," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 475-484, 2004.
15. Johnson, J. E., T. Takenaka, and T. Tanaka, "Two-dimensional time-domain inverse scattering for quantitative analysis of breast composition," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 55, No. 8, 1941-1945, 2008. doi:10.1109/TBME.2007.899364
16. Johnson, J. E., T. Takenaka, and T. Tanaka, "Experimental three- dimensional time-domain reconstruction of dielectric objects for breast cancer detection," Proc. Mediterr. Microw. Symp., 423-426, 2006.
17. Johnson, J. E., T. Takenaka, K. A. Hong Ping, S. Honda, and T. Tanaka, "Advances in the 3-D forward-backward time-stepping (FBTS) inverse scattering technique for breast cancer detection," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., Vol. 56, No. 9, 2232-2243, 2009. doi:10.1109/TBME.2009.2022635
18. Zhou, H., T. Takenaka, J. Johnson, and T. Tanaka, "A breast imaging model using microwaves and a time domain three dimen- sional reconstruction method," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 93, 57-70, 2009. doi:10.2528/PIER09033001
19. Samii, Y. R. and E. Michielssen, Electromagnetic Optimization by Genetic Algorithms, Wiley, New York, 1999.
20. Rocca, P., M. Benedetti, M. Donelli, D. Franceschini, and A. Massa, "Evolutionary optimization as applied to inverse scattering problems," Inverse Problems, Vol. 12, No. 25, 1999.
21. Donelli, M., A. Massa, G. Oliveri, M. Pastorino, and A. Randazzo, "A differential evolution based multi-scaling algorithm for microwave imaging of dielectric structures," Proceedings of IEEE International Conferences on Imaging Systems and Techniques, IST 2010, 90-95, 2010. doi:10.1109/IST.2010.5548515
22. Donelli, M. and A. Massa, "Computational approach based on a particle swarm optimizer for microwave imaging of two-dimensional dielectric scatterers," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 5, 1761-1776, 2005. doi:10.1109/TMTT.2005.847068
23. Donelli, M., G. Franceschini, A. Martini, and A. Massa, "An integrated multiscaling strategy based on a particle swarm algorithm for inverse scattering problems," IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 44, No. 2, 298-312, 2006. doi:10.1109/TGRS.2005.861412
24. Tereshko, V. and A. Loengarov, "Collective decision-making in honey bee foraging dynamics," Computing and Information Systems Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1352-9404, ISSN, 2005.
25. Massa, A., D. Franceschini, G. Franceschini, M. Pastorino, M. Raffetto, and M. Donelli, "Parallel GA-based approach for microwave imaging applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 53, No. 10, 3118-3127, 2005. doi:10.1109/TAP.2005.856311
26. Hoefer, W. J., "The transmission-line matrix method-theory and applications," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 33, 882-893, 1985. doi:10.1109/TMTT.1985.1133146
27. Bonabeau, E., M. Dorigo, and G. Theraulaz, Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems, Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.
28. Rocca, R., L. Manica, F. Stringari, and A. Massa, "Ant colony optimisation for tree-searching-based synthesis of monopulse array antenna," Electronics Letters, Vol. 44, No. 13, 783-785, 2008. doi:10.1049/el:20081045
29. Karaboga, D. and B. Basturk, "A powerful and effcient algorithm for numerical function optimization: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm," Journal Global Optim. Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 214, 108-132, 2009.
30. Karaboga, D. and B. Akay, "A comparative study of artificial bee colony algorithm," Journal Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 214, 108-132, 2009. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2009.03.090