This paper presents a novel technique for the synthesis of unequally spaced linear antenna array. The modified Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) algorithm is applied to optimize the antenna element positions for suppressing peak side lobe level (PSLL) and for achieving nulls in specified directions. The novelty of the proposed approach is in the application of a constraint-based static penalty function during optimization of the array. The static penalty function is able to put selective pressure on the PSLL, the first null beam width (FNBW) or the accurate null positioning as desired by the application at hand lending a high degree of flexibility to the synthesis process. Various design examples are considered and the obtained results are validated by comparing with the results obtained using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO). Results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the previously published methods in terms of a significant reduction in peak side lobe level while maintaining strong nulls in desired directions. The flexibility and ease of implementation of the modified IWO algorithm in handling the constraints using static penalty function is evident from this analysis, showing the usefulness of the constraint based method in electromagnetic optimization problems.
2. Kummer, W. H., "Basic array theory," Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 80, 127-139, Jan. 1992.
3. Ares-pena, F. J., J. A. Gonzalez, E. Lopez, and S. R. Rengarajan, "Genetic algorithms in the design and optimization of antenna array patterns," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 47, No. 3, 506-510, Mar. 1999.
4. Johnson, J. and Y. Rahmat-Samii, "Genetic algorithms in engineering electromagnetics," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 39, 7-21, Aug. 1997.
5. Yan, K. K. and Y. Lu, "Sidelobe reduction in array pattern synthesis using genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 7, 1117-1122, Jul. 1997.
6. Chen, K., X. Yun, Z. He, and C. Hun, "Synthesis of sparse planar arrays using modified real genetic algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 4, 1067-1073, Apr. 2007.
7. Murino, V., A. Trucco, and C. Regazzoni, "Synthesis of unequally spaced arrays by simulated annealing," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 44, No. 1, 119-123, Jan. 1996.
8. Dib, N. I., S. K. Goudos, and H. Muhsen, "Application of Taguchi's optimization method and self-adaptive di®erential evolution to the synthesis of linear antenna arrays," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 102, 159-180, 2010.
9. Lin, C., A.-Y. Qing, and Q.-Y. Feng, "Synthesis of unequally spaced antenna arrays by using di®erential evolution," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, 2553-2561, 2010.
10. Perez Lopez, J. R. and J. Basterrechea, "Hybrid particle swarm-based algorithms and their application to linear array synthesis," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 90, 63-74, 2009.
11. Boeringer, D. W. and D. H. Werner, "Particle swarm optimization versus genetic algorithms for phased array synthesis," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 3, 771-779, Mar. 2004.
12. Robinson, J. and Y. Rahmat-Samii., "Particle swarm optimization in electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 52, No. 2, 397-407, Feb. 2004.
13. Khodier, M. M. and C. G. Christodoulou, "Linear array geometry synthesis with minimum side lobe level and null controlling using particle swarm optimization," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 8, 2674-2679, Aug. 2005.
14. Jin, N. and Y. R. Samii, "Advances in particle swarm optimization for antenna designs: Real number, binary, single-objective and multiobjective implementations," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 3, 556-567, Mar. 2007.
15. Khodier, M. M. and M. Al-Aqeel, "Linear and circular array optimization: A study using particle swarm intelligence," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 15, 347-373, 2009.
16. Liu, D., Q.-Y. Feng, W.-B. Yang, and X. Yu, "Synthesis of unequally spaced antenna arrays using inheritance learning particle swarm optimization," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 118, 205-221, 2011.
17. Pappula, L. and D. Ghosh, "Linear antenna array synthesis for wireless communications using particle swarm optimization," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology,, 780-783, Jan. 2013.
18. Rajo-lglesias, E. and O. Quevedo-Teruel, "Linear array synthesis using an ant colony optimization based algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 2, 70-79, Apr. 2007.
19. Mehrabian, A. R. and C. Lucas, "A novel numerical optimization algorithm inspired from weed colonization," Ecological Informatics, Vol. 1, No. 4, 355-366, Dec. 2006.
20. Karimkashi, S. and A. A. Kishk, "Invasive weed optimization and its features in electromagnetics," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 58, No. 4, 1269-1278, Apr. 2010.
21. Roy, G. G., S. Das, P. Chakraborty, and P. N. Suganthan, "Design of non uniform circular antenna arrays using a modified invasive weed optimization algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 1, 110-118, Jan. 2011.
22. Pappula, L. and D. Ghosh, "Large array synthesis using invasive weed optimization," Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Microwave and Photonics, 1-6, Dec. 2013.
23. Pappula, L. and D. Ghosh, "Linear antenna array synthesis using cat swarm optimization," International Journal of Electronics and Communications (AEU), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aeue.2013.12.012, Jan. 2014.
24. Homaifar, A., S. H. Y. Lai, and X. Qi, "Constrained optimization via genetic algorithms," Simulation, Vol. 62, 242-254, 1994.
25. Joines, J. A. and C. R. Houck, "On the use of non-stationary penalty functions to solve nonlinear constrained optimization problems with GA's," Proceedings of the First IEEE Conference on Evolutionary Computation, 579-584, 1994.
26. Rao, S. S., "Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice," John Wiley & Sons, United States of America, 1996.