Vol. 40
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERM 114 [2022] PIERM 113 [2022] PIERM 112 [2022] PIERM 111 [2022] PIERM 110 [2022] PIERM 109 [2022] PIERM 108 [2022] PIERM 107 [2022] PIERM 106 [2021] PIERM 105 [2021] PIERM 104 [2021] PIERM 103 [2021] PIERM 102 [2021] PIERM 101 [2021] PIERM 100 [2021] PIERM 99 [2021] PIERM 98 [2020] PIERM 97 [2020] PIERM 96 [2020] PIERM 95 [2020] PIERM 94 [2020] PIERM 93 [2020] PIERM 92 [2020] PIERM 91 [2020] PIERM 90 [2020] PIERM 89 [2020] PIERM 88 [2020] PIERM 87 [2019] PIERM 86 [2019] PIERM 85 [2019] PIERM 84 [2019] PIERM 83 [2019] PIERM 82 [2019] PIERM 81 [2019] PIERM 80 [2019] PIERM 79 [2019] PIERM 78 [2019] PIERM 77 [2019] PIERM 76 [2018] PIERM 75 [2018] PIERM 74 [2018] PIERM 73 [2018] PIERM 72 [2018] PIERM 71 [2018] PIERM 70 [2018] PIERM 69 [2018] PIERM 68 [2018] PIERM 67 [2018] PIERM 66 [2018] PIERM 65 [2018] PIERM 64 [2018] PIERM 63 [2018] PIERM 62 [2017] PIERM 61 [2017] PIERM 60 [2017] PIERM 59 [2017] PIERM 58 [2017] PIERM 57 [2017] PIERM 56 [2017] PIERM 55 [2017] PIERM 54 [2017] PIERM 53 [2017] PIERM 52 [2016] PIERM 51 [2016] PIERM 50 [2016] PIERM 49 [2016] PIERM 48 [2016] PIERM 47 [2016] PIERM 46 [2016] PIERM 45 [2016] PIERM 44 [2015] PIERM 43 [2015] PIERM 42 [2015] PIERM 41 [2015] PIERM 40 [2014] PIERM 39 [2014] PIERM 38 [2014] PIERM 37 [2014] PIERM 36 [2014] PIERM 35 [2014] PIERM 34 [2014] PIERM 33 [2013] PIERM 32 [2013] PIERM 31 [2013] PIERM 30 [2013] PIERM 29 [2013] PIERM 28 [2013] PIERM 27 [2012] PIERM 26 [2012] PIERM 25 [2012] PIERM 24 [2012] PIERM 23 [2012] PIERM 22 [2012] PIERM 21 [2011] PIERM 20 [2011] PIERM 19 [2011] PIERM 18 [2011] PIERM 17 [2011] PIERM 16 [2011] PIERM 14 [2010] PIERM 13 [2010] PIERM 12 [2010] PIERM 11 [2010] PIERM 10 [2009] PIERM 9 [2009] PIERM 8 [2009] PIERM 7 [2009] PIERM 6 [2009] PIERM 5 [2008] PIERM 4 [2008] PIERM 3 [2008] PIERM 2 [2008] PIERM 1 [2008]
2015-01-16
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Magnetic Fields of a 400 kV Substation
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 205-213, 2014
Abstract
Workers using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are classified by European Directive 2013/35/EU as being at particular risk because of the potential interference between implanted medical devices and electromagnetic fields. The aim of the study was to investigate ICD function using a human-shaped phantom in high magnetic fields of a shunt reactor at a 400 kV substation. We used the phantom in the following experiment periods: isolated from the ground, grounded by a foot, or grounded by a hand. We performed five ICD tests using five different ICD devices. In experiment place A, the magnetic field was over 1000 μT, and in experiment place B, the exposure was over 600 μT. We did not find any disturbances in the ICDs. However, we conducted only 5 ICD experiments in real exposure situations at 400 kV substations. Although it is not possible to draw a strong conclusion regarding risk level, the risk of such ICD disturbances from magnetic field exposure at 400 kV substations does not appear to be high.
Citation
Leena Korpinen Harri Kuisti Hiroo Tarao Jarmo Elovaara Vesa Virtanen , "Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Magnetic Fields of a 400 kV Substation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 40, 205-213, 2014.
doi:10.2528/PIERM14111604
http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=14111604
References

1. Mond, H. G. and A. Proclemer, "The 11th world survey of cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Calendar Year 2009 --- A world society of Arrhythmia’s project," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., Vol. 34, 1013-1027, 2011.
doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2011.03150.x

2. ANSI/AAMI PC69, Active implantable medical devices --- Electromagnetic compatibility --- EMC test protocols for implantable cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, 81 American National Standard, Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, Arlington, 2007.

3. European Parliament and Council of the European Union, "Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and of the council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields) (20th individual directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of directive 89/391/EEC) and repealing directive 2004/40/EC," Official Journal of the European Union, 21, 2013.

4. Tiikkaja, M., et al., "Electromagnetic interference with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators from low-frequency electromagnetic fields in vivo," Europace, Vol. 15, No. 3, 388-394, 2013.
doi:10.1093/europace/eus345

5. Katrib, J., M. Nadi, D. Kourtiche, I. Magne, P. Schmitt, M. Souques, and P. Roth, "In vitro assessment of the immunity of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators to magnetic fields of 50/60 Hz," Physiol. Meas., Vol. 34, No. 10, 1281-1292, 2013.
doi:10.1088/0967-3334/34/10/1281

6. Souques, M., I. Magne, and J. Lambrozo, "Implantable cardioverter defibrillator and 50-Hz electric and magnetic fields exposure in the workplace," Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, Vol. 84, 1-6, 2011.
doi:10.1007/s00420-010-0599-y

7. Gimbel, J. R. and J. W. Cox, "Electronic article surveillance systems and interactions with implantable cardiac devices: Risk of adverse interactions in public and commercial spaces," Mayo. Clin. Proc., Vol. 82, No. 3, 318-322, 2007.
doi:10.1016/S0025-6196(11)61028-8

8. Tiikkaja, M., A. Aro, T. Alanko, H. Lindholm, and M. Hietanen, "Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator magnet-mode switch induced by a laptop computer," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., Vol. 35, e177-e178, 2012.
doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2012.03330.x

9. Korpinen, L., H. Kuisti, J. Elovaara, and V. Virtanen, "Cardiac pacemakers in electric and magnetic fields of 400-kV power lines," Pacing Clin. Electrophysio., Vol. 135, 422-430, 2012.
doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2011.03327.x

10. Korpinen, L., H. Kuisti, J. Elovaara, and V. Virtanen, "Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in electric and magnetic fields of 400 kV power lines," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., Vol. 37, 297-303, 2014.
doi:10.1111/pace.12270

11. EN 45502-2-1, "Active implantable medical devices --- Part 2-1: Particular requirements for active implantable medical devices intended to treat bradyarrhytmia (cardiac pacemakers),", 95s, 2003.

12. CENELEC, Low profile connector for implantable cardiac pacemakers, EN 50077, 16, Brussels, Belgium, 1993.