Vol. 57

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency Enhancement of the PANI-CSA Films at Broad Band Frequencies

By Sreekala P. Sasikumar, Vadakkekalathil Libi Mol, Dibin Mary George, Arimpoorpallan Lindo, Neeraj Kavalparambil Pushkaran, Honey John, and Chandroth Aanandan
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 57, 163-174, 2017


A material sample of Camphour Sulphonic Acid doped Polyaniline (PANI-CSA) is contemplated towards its conceivable use as a microwave shield. Shielding towards electromagnetic interferences (EMI) is measured over various frequency bands by the waveguide method. Plane wave electromagnetic theory is used to generalize the overall reflection and transmission coefficients of the polymer. EMI shielding of the polymer, in the form of Shielding Efficiency (SE), is analyzed over the microwave frequency range from 2 to 18 GHz, demonstrating the potential value of the polymer as an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shield for commercial purposes. The shielding film is fabricated using standard procedure with CSA as the dopant and m-cresol as the solvent. The shielding effectiveness as high as 45 dB for the sample of PANI doped with CSA is observed.


Sreekala P. Sasikumar, Vadakkekalathil Libi Mol, Dibin Mary George, Arimpoorpallan Lindo, Neeraj Kavalparambil Pushkaran, Honey John, and Chandroth Aanandan, "Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency Enhancement of the PANI-CSA Films at Broad Band Frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 57, 163-174, 2017.


    1. Shirakawa, B. H., E. J. Louis, A. G. Macdiarmid, C. K. Chiang, and A. J. Heeger, "Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: Halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH) x," J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 578-580, 1977.

    2. Roth, S. and W. Graupner, "Conductive polymers: Evaluation of industrial applications," Synth. Met., Vol. 57, No. 1, 3623-3631, 1993.

    3. Lee, C. Y., H. G. Song, K. S. Jang, E. J. Oh, A. J. Epstein, and J. Joo, "Electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of polyaniline mixtures and multilayer films," Synth. Met., Vol. 102, No. 1-3, 1346-1349, 1999.

    4. Luo, X. and D. D. L. Chung, "Electromagnetic interference shielding using continuous carbon-fiber carbon-matrix and polymer-matrix composites," Composites: Part B, Vol. 30, 227-231, 1999.

    5. Jayasree, P. V. Y., V. S. S. N. S. Baba, B. Prabhakar Rao, and P. Lakshman, "Analysis of shielding effectiveness of single, double and laminated shields for oblique incidence of EM waves," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 22, 187-202, 2010.

    6. Colaneri, N. F. and L.W. Shacklette, "EMI shielding measurements of conductive polymer blends," IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 41, No. 2, 1992.

    7. Joo, J. and A. J. Epstein, "Electromagnetic radiation shielding by intrinsically conducting polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 65, No. 18, 2278, 1994.

    8. Makela, T., S. Pienimaa, T. Taka, S. Jussilaa, and H. Isotaloa, "Thin polyaniline films in EMI shielding," Synthetic Metals, Vol. 85, 1335-1336, 1997.

    9. Shui, X. and D. D. L. Chung, "Submicron Nickel filaments made by electroplating carbon filaments as a new filter material for Electromagnetic interference materials," J. Electron. Mater., Vol. 24, 107-113, 1995.

    10. Lin, L. and D. D. L. Chung, "Electrical and mechanical properties of electrically conductive polyethersulfone composites," Composites, Vol. 25, 215, 1994.

    11. Ott, H. W., Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988.

    12. Oh, K. W., D. J. Kim, and S. H. Kim, "Adhesion improvement of electroless copper plated layer on PET film-effect of pretreatment conditions," Polymer (Korea), Vol. 25, 302-310, 2001.

    13. Saini, P., V. Choudhary, K. N. Sood, and S. K. Dhawan, "Electromagnetic interference shielding behavior of polyaniline/graphite composites prepared by in situ emulsion pathway," J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Vol. 113, 3146-3155, 2009.

    14. Saini, P., V. Choudhary, and S. K. Dhawan, "Improved microwave absorption and electrostatic charge dissipation efficiencies of conducting polymer grafted fabrics prepared via in situ polymerization," Polym. Adv. Technol., Vol. 23, 343-349, 2012.

    15. Trivedi, D. C., Handbook of Organic Conductive Molecules and Polymers, Vol. 2, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK, 1997.

    16. Saini, P., R. Jalan, and S. K. Dhawan, "Synthesis and characterization of processable polyaniline doped with novel dopant NaSIPA," J. Appl. Polym. Sci., Vol. 108, 1437, 2008.

    17. Kohlman, R. S., J. Joo, and A. J. Epstein, Conducting Polymers: Electrical Conductivity, AIP Series in Polymers and Complex Materials, Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, edited by J. E. Mark, American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, NY, 1996.

    18. Rmili, H., J.-L. Miane, T. E. Olinga, and H. Zangar, "Microwave conductivity measurements of high conductive polyaniline films," Int. J. Polym. Anal. Charact., Vol. 9, 77-96, 2004.

    19. Mazeikiene, R. and A. Malinauskas, "Electrochemical preparation and study of novel self-doped polyanilines," Mater. Chem. Phys., Vol. 83, 184-192, 2004.

    20. Ikkala, O. T., L.-O. Pietila, L. Ahjopalo, H. Österholm, and P. J. Passiniemi, "On the molecular recognition and associations between electrically conducting polyaniline and solvents," J. Chem. Phys., Vol. 103, 9855, 1995.

    21. Lee, K. H., B. J. Park, D. H. Song, I. J. Chin, and H. J. Choi, "The role of acidic m-cresol in polyaniline doped by camphorsulfonic acid," Polymer, Vol. 50, 4372-4377, 2009.

    22. Hong, Y. K., C. Y. Lee, C. K. Jeong, D. E. Lee, K. Kim, and J. Joo, "Method and apparatus to measure electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency and its shielding characteristics in broadband frequency ranges," Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 74, 1098-1102, 2003.

    23. Joo, J., C. Y. Lee, H. G. Song, J.W. Kim, K. S. Jang, E. J. Oh, and A. J. Epstein, "Enhancement of electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of polyaniline through mixture and chemical doping," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. Sect. A. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., Vol. 316, 367-370, 1998.

    24. Song, Y., H. Wang, and Y. Zheng, "Electric and electromagnetic shielding properties of highly conducting polyaniline films," International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 582, IEEE, 2002.

    25. Joo, J. and C. Y. Lee, "High frequency electromagnetic interference shielding response of mixtures and multilayer films based on conducting polymers," J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 88, 513, 2000.

    26. Wojkiewicz, J., J. Wojkiewicz, S. Fauveaux, and J. Miane, "Dielectric behavior and shielding properties of Polyaniline composites," IEEE 7th International Conference on Solid Dielectrics, 46-49, 2001.

    27. Wessling, B., "Dispersion as the link between basic research and commercial applications of conductive polymers (polyaniline)," Synth. Met., Vol. 93, 143-154, 1998.

    28. Kumar, K. K. S., S. Geetha, and D. C. Trivedi, "Freestanding conducting polyaniline film for the control of electromagnetic radiations," Current Applied Physics, Vol. 5, 603-608, 2005.

    29. Schelkunoff, S. A., Electromagnetic Waves, Van Nostrand, Princton, NJ, 1945.

    30. Chen, Y., Y. Li, M. Yip, and N. Tai, "Electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency of polyaniline composites filled with graphene decorated with metallic nanoparticles," Compos. Sci. Technol., Vol. 80, 80-86, 2013.

    31. Saini, P., V. Choudhary, B. P. Singh, R. B. Mathur, and S. K. Dhawan, "Enhanced microwave absorption behavior of polyaniline-CNT/polystyrene blend in 12.4-18.0 GHz range," Synth. Met., Vol. 161, 1522-1526, 2011.

    32. Morari, C., I. Balan, J. Pintea, E. Chitanu, and I. Iordache, "Electrical conductivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of Silicon rubber filled with ferrite and graphite powders," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 21, 93-104, 2011.

    33. Lee, C. Y., D. E. Lee, C. K. Jeong, Y. K. Hong, J. H. Shim, J. Joo, M. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, S. H. Jeong, S. W. Byun, D. S. Zang, and H. G. Yang, "Electromagnetic interference shielding by using conductive polypyrrole and metal compound coated on fabrics," Polym. Adv. Technol., Vol. 13, 577-583, 2002.

    34. Benhamou, S. M., M. Hamouni, and S. Khaldi, "Theoretical approach of electromagnetic shielding of multilayer conductive sheets," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 41, 167-175, 2015.

    35. Hong, Y. K., C. Y. Lee, C. K. Jeong, D. E. Lee, K. Kim, and J. Joo, "Method and apparatus to measure electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency and its shielding characteristics in broadband frequency ranges," Rev. Sci. Instrum., Vol. 74, No. 2, 1098-1102, 2003.

    36. Park, S.-H. and P. T. Theilmann, "Enhanced electromagnetic interference shielding through the use of functionalized carbon-nanotube-reactive polymer composites," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, No. 4, July 2010.

    37. Lin, M. S. and C. H. Chen, "Plane-wave shielding characteristics of anisotropic laminated composites," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., Vol. 35, No. 1, 21-27, 1993.

    38. Joo, J., H. G. Song, Y. C. Chung, and J. S. Baeck, "The effects of dopant and solvent on charge transport of doped polyanilines," Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 30, No. 2, 230-236, 1997.

    39. Honey, J., S. Biju Kumar, K. T. Mathew, and J. Rani, "Effect of drying conditions on microwave conductivity of polyaniline," Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 83, 2008-2012, 2002.

    40. Joshi, A., A. Bajaj, R. Singh, A. Anand, P. S. Alegaonkar, and S. Datar, "Processing of graphene nanoribbon based hybrid composite for electromagnetic shielding," Composites: Part B, Vol. 69, 472-477, 2015.

    41. Salimbeygi, G., K. Nasouri, A. M. Shoushtari, R. Malek, and F. Mazaheri, "Microwave absorption properties of polyaniline/poly (vinyl alcohol)/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites in thin film and nanofiber layer structures," Macromolecular Research, Vol. 23, No. 8, 741-748, 2015.

    42. Hoang, N. H., J. Wojkiewicz, J. Miane, and R. S. Biscarro, "Lightweight electromagnetic shields using optimized polyaniline composites in the microwave band," Polym. Adv. Technol., Vol. 18, 257-262, 2007.

    43. El Kamchi, N., B. Belaabed, J.-L. Wojkiewicz, S. Lamouri, and T. Lasri, "Hybrid polyaniline/nanomagnetic particles composites: High performance materials for EMI shielding," J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 4426-4432, 2013.

    44. Niu, Y., "Preparation of polyaniline/polyacrylate composites and their application for electromagnetic interference shielding," Polymer Composites, 2006.

    45. Fauveaux, S. and J. Miane, Broadband Electromagnetic Shields Using Polyaniline Composites, Vol. 23, 617-627, 2003.

    46. Geetha, S., K. K. S. Kumar, C. R. K. Rao, M. Vijayan, and D. C. Trivedi, EMI Shielding: Methods and Materials - A Review, Vol. 112, No. 1, 2073-2086, 2009.