In this paper, radio wave propagation over irregular terrain is investigated in 200-600 MHz (VHF/UHF band). Measured results are compared with different path loss models such as Fresnel knife edge diffraction and uniform theory of diffraction (UTD). It is shown that, for low antenna heights, using a combination of the two-ray path loss model and knife-edge diffraction, great improvement in path loss prediction accuracy is achieved. The derived model is aimed to effectively predict path loss for near-ground and short-range communication applications.
2. Joshi, G. G., C. B. Dietrich Jr., C. R. Anderson, W. G. Newhall, W. A. Davis, J. Isaacs, and G. Barnett, "Near-ground channel measurements over line-of-sight and forested paths," IEE Proc. - Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 152, No. 6, 589-596, 2005.
3. Aslam, M. I. and S. A. Zekavat, "New channel path loss model for near-ground antenna sensor networks," IET Wirel. Sens. Syst., Vol. 2, No. 2, 103-107, 2012.
4. Martinez-Sala, A., J. M. Molina-Garcia-Pardo, E. Egea-Lodpez, J. Vales-Alonso, L. Juan-Llacer, and J. Garcia-Haro, "An accurate radio channel model for wireless sensor networks simulation," Journal of Communications and Networks, Vol. 7, No. 4, 401-407, 2005.
5. Hampton, J. R., N. M. Merheb, W. L. Lain, D. E. Paunil, R. M. Shuford, and W. T. Kasch, "Urban propagation measurements for ground based communication in the military UHF band," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 54, No. 2, 644-654, 2006.
6. Miranda, J., R. Abrishambaf, T. Gomes, P. Goncalves, J. Cabral, A. Tavares, and J. Monteiro, "Path loss exponent analysis in wireless sensor networks: Experimental evaluation," 2013 11th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 54-58, 2013.
7. AISayyari, A., I. Kostanic, and C. E. Otero, "An empirical path loss model for wireless sensor network deployment in an articial turf environment," 2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC), 637-642, 2014.
8. Andrusenko, J., R. L. Miller, J. A. Abrahamson, N. M. M. Emanuelli, R. S. Pattay, and R. M. Shuford, "VHF general urban path loss model for short range ground-to-ground communications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 10, 3302-3310, 2008.
9. Alsayyari, A., I. Kostanic, and C. E. Otero, "An empirical path loss model for wireless sensor network deployment in a concrete surface environment," 2015 IEEE 16th Annual Wireless and Microwave Technology Conference (WAMICON), 1-6, 2015.
10. Rappaport, T., Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2001.
11. Luebbers, R., "Finite conductivity uniform GTD versus knife edge diffraction in prediction of propagation path loss," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 32, No. 1, 70-76, 1984.
12. Kanatas, A. G., I. D. Kountouris, G. B. Kostaras, and P. Constantinou, "A UTD propagation model in urban microcellular environments," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 46, No. 1, 185-193, 1997.
13. Parson, J. D., The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, 2nd Ed., Wiley, NY, 2000.
14. Lee, W. C., Mobile Communications Engineering, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1982.
15. Blomquist, A. and L. Ladell, "Prediction and calculation of transmission loss in different types of terrain," NATO-AGARD Conf., Publ. CP-144, Res. Inst. Nat. Defense Dept. 3, S-10450, Stockholm 80, 1974.
16. Edwards, R. and J. Durkin, "Computer prediction of service areas for vhf mobile radio networks," IEEE Proc., Vol. 116, No. 9, 1493-1500, 1969.
17. Liu, P., D. W. Matolak, B. Ai, and R. Sun, "Path loss modeling for vehicle-to-vehicle communication on a slope," IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., Vol. 63, No. 6, 2954-2958, 2014.