Vol. 59
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERM 114 [2022] PIERM 113 [2022] PIERM 112 [2022] PIERM 111 [2022] PIERM 110 [2022] PIERM 109 [2022] PIERM 108 [2022] PIERM 107 [2022] PIERM 106 [2021] PIERM 105 [2021] PIERM 104 [2021] PIERM 103 [2021] PIERM 102 [2021] PIERM 101 [2021] PIERM 100 [2021] PIERM 99 [2021] PIERM 98 [2020] PIERM 97 [2020] PIERM 96 [2020] PIERM 95 [2020] PIERM 94 [2020] PIERM 93 [2020] PIERM 92 [2020] PIERM 91 [2020] PIERM 90 [2020] PIERM 89 [2020] PIERM 88 [2020] PIERM 87 [2019] PIERM 86 [2019] PIERM 85 [2019] PIERM 84 [2019] PIERM 83 [2019] PIERM 82 [2019] PIERM 81 [2019] PIERM 80 [2019] PIERM 79 [2019] PIERM 78 [2019] PIERM 77 [2019] PIERM 76 [2018] PIERM 75 [2018] PIERM 74 [2018] PIERM 73 [2018] PIERM 72 [2018] PIERM 71 [2018] PIERM 70 [2018] PIERM 69 [2018] PIERM 68 [2018] PIERM 67 [2018] PIERM 66 [2018] PIERM 65 [2018] PIERM 64 [2018] PIERM 63 [2018] PIERM 62 [2017] PIERM 61 [2017] PIERM 60 [2017] PIERM 59 [2017] PIERM 58 [2017] PIERM 57 [2017] PIERM 56 [2017] PIERM 55 [2017] PIERM 54 [2017] PIERM 53 [2017] PIERM 52 [2016] PIERM 51 [2016] PIERM 50 [2016] PIERM 49 [2016] PIERM 48 [2016] PIERM 47 [2016] PIERM 46 [2016] PIERM 45 [2016] PIERM 44 [2015] PIERM 43 [2015] PIERM 42 [2015] PIERM 41 [2015] PIERM 40 [2014] PIERM 39 [2014] PIERM 38 [2014] PIERM 37 [2014] PIERM 36 [2014] PIERM 35 [2014] PIERM 34 [2014] PIERM 33 [2013] PIERM 32 [2013] PIERM 31 [2013] PIERM 30 [2013] PIERM 29 [2013] PIERM 28 [2013] PIERM 27 [2012] PIERM 26 [2012] PIERM 25 [2012] PIERM 24 [2012] PIERM 23 [2012] PIERM 22 [2012] PIERM 21 [2011] PIERM 20 [2011] PIERM 19 [2011] PIERM 18 [2011] PIERM 17 [2011] PIERM 16 [2011] PIERM 14 [2010] PIERM 13 [2010] PIERM 12 [2010] PIERM 11 [2010] PIERM 10 [2009] PIERM 9 [2009] PIERM 8 [2009] PIERM 7 [2009] PIERM 6 [2009] PIERM 5 [2008] PIERM 4 [2008] PIERM 3 [2008] PIERM 2 [2008] PIERM 1 [2008]
2017-08-11
Investigations of SAR Distributions and Temperature Elevation on Human Body at 60 GHz with Corrugated Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 59, 111-121, 2017
Abstract
New generation wireless communications are expected to provide new services over the existing variety of wireless applications in the coming years. In this perspective, advances in utilization of computational electromagnetics (EM) and millimeter-waves (mmW) frequency bands make them as candidates for ultra-high-resolution and ultra-high-speed wireless communications. With the deployment of mmW wireless technologies, brinks of potential mmW induced biological and health effects should be evaluated carefully. The EM exposure is usually measured in terms of absorbed power from any user operating wireless devices. The exposure varies with the part of the body and location of the source that is exposed to the radio frequency waves. The purpose of this study is to observe EM exposure in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and temperature elevations at mmWs from the designed Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna (ALTSA) at 60 GHz on different body parts utilizing EM computations and experiments with Infrared Thermal Camera.
Citation
Purva Shrivastava Thipparaju Rama Rao , "Investigations of SAR Distributions and Temperature Elevation on Human Body at 60 GHz with Corrugated Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 59, 111-121, 2017.
doi:10.2528/PIERM17041707
http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=17041707
References

1. Celik, N., M. F. Iskander, R. Emrick, S. J. Franson, and J. Holmes, "Implementation and experimental verification of a smart antenna system operating at 60 GHz band," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 9, 2790-2800, Sep. 2008.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2008.928785

2. Baykas, T., C. S. Sum, Z. Lan, J. Wang, M. A. Rahman, and H. Harada, "IEEE 802.15.3c: the first IEEE wireless standard for data rates over 1 Gb/s," IEEE Communications Mag., Vol. 49, No. 7, 114-121, Jul. 2011.
doi:10.1109/MCOM.2011.5936164

3. Jiang, C., "Microwave and millimetre wave integrated circuit system in packaging,", DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Jan. 2010.

4. Huang, K. C. and D. J. Edwards, Millimetre Wave Antennas for Gigabit Wireless Communications, 1st Ed., John Wiley, Chichester, 2008.
doi:10.1002/9780470712467

5. Cotton, S. L., W. G. Scanlon, and B. K. Madahar, "Millimeter-wave soldier-to-soldier communications for covert battlefield operations," IEEE Communications Mag., Vol. 47, No. 10, 72-81, Oct. 2009.
doi:10.1109/MCOM.2009.5273811

6. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, "Wearable end-fire textile antenna for on-body communications at 60 GHz," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Letters, Vol. 11, 799-802, Jul. 2012.

7. Yong, S. K. and C. C. Chong, "An overview of multi gigabit wireless through millimeter wave technology: Potentials and technical challenges," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Article ID 78907, 2007.

8. Gutierrez, F., S. Agarwal, K. Parrish, and T. S. Rappaport, "On chip integrated antenna structures in CMOS for 60 GHz WPAN systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., Vol. 27, No. 8, 1367-1378, Oct. 2009.
doi:10.1109/JSAC.2009.091007

9. Zhadobov, M., N. Chahat, R. Sauleau, C. L. Quement, and Y. Le Drean, "Millimeter-wave interactions with the human body: State of knowledge and recent advances," Int. Journal of Microwave and Wirel. Tech., Vol. 3, No. 2, 237-247, Apr. 2011.
doi:10.1017/S1759078711000122

10. Gandhi, O. P. and A. Riazi, "Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications," IEEE Trans. Microwave. Theory Tech., Vol. 34, No. 2, 228-235, Feb. 1986.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.1986.1133316

11. Coburn, W. K. and A. I. Zaghloul, "Numerical analysis of stacked tapered slot antennas," 28th Annual Review of Prog. in Applied Comput. Electromagt., 112-117, Ohio, 2012.

12. Shrivastava, P., D. Chandra, N. Tiwari, and T. Rama Rao, "Investigations on corrugation issues in SIW based antipodal linear tapered slot antenna for wireless networks at 60 GHz," Applied Computational. Electromagnetics Society Journal, ACES, Vol. 28, No. 10, 960-96, Oct. 2013.

13. Shrivastava, P. and T. Rama Rao, "60 GHz radio link characteristic studies in hallway environment using antipodal linear tapered slot antenna," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 15, 1793-1802, 2015.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2014.0787

14. Bozzi, M., L. Perregrini, K. Wu, and P. Arcioni, "Current and future research trends in substrate integrated waveguide technology," Radioengineering, Vol. 18, No. 2, 201-20, 2009.

15. Zhang, Y., W. Hong, and Z. Kuai, "A SIW fed antipodal linear tapered slot planar multi-beam antenna for millimeter-wave application," Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 175-178, 2010.
doi:10.5515/JKIEES.2010.10.3.175

16. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, L. Le Coq, S. Alekseev, and R. Sauleau, "Characterization of the interactions between a 60-GHz antenna and the human body in an off-body scenario," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 12, 5958-5965, Dec. 2012.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2211326

17. IEEE Standards Interpretations for IEEE Std C95.1TM-2005, "IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,".
doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2211326

18. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, Vol. 74, No. 4, 494-522, Apr. 1998.

19. Wu, T., T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collins, "Safe for generations to come: Considerations of safety for millimeter waves in wireless communications," IEEE Microwave Mag., Vol. 16, No. 2, 65-84, Mar. 2015.
doi:10.1109/MMM.2014.2377587

20. Wu, T., T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collins, "The human body and millimeter-wave wireless communication systems: Interactions and implications," IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Jun. 2015.

21. Halla, P., "Specific absorption rate design of 3rd generation handsets,", Mater Dissertation Theses, Helsinki University Of Technology, Finland, 2008.

22. Butet, R., Y. Toutain, S. L. Dall, J. Luc, L. J. Foged, and J. Estrada, "A fast SAR measurements system for production testing of personal wireless devices," IEEE Intern. Symp. on Antennas and Prop. Society (APSURSI), 2026-2027, Jul. 2013.

23. Alekseev, S. I. and M. C. Ziskin, "Human skin permittivity determined by millimeter wave reflection measurements," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 28, No. 5, 331-339, 2007.
doi:10.1002/bem.20308

24., http://www.abmillimetre.com/Introduction.html.

25. Millimetre, A. B., "An 8 to 1000 GHz vector network analyser," Microwave Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3, Mar. 1992.

26. Djerafi, T. and K. Wu, "Corrugated Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna array fed by quasi-triangular power divider," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 26, 139-151, 2012.
doi:10.2528/PIERC11091912

27. Taringou, F., D. Dousset, J. Bornemann, and K. Wu, "Broadband CPW feed for millimeter-wave SIW-based antipodal linearly tapered slot antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 61, No. 4, 1756-1762, 2013.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2232270

28. Wang, W., X. Wang, W. Wang, and A. E. Fathy, "Planar high-gain antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna for passive millimeter-wave focal plane array imaging," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Phased Array Systems & Tech., 267-271, Waltham, MA, USA, Oct. 2013.

29. Ismail, M. and A. R. Sebak, "High-gain SIW-based antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna for 60-GHz applications," Proc. IEEE Antennas Prop. Society Int. Symp., 217-218, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, Jun. 2014.

30. Italian National Research Council, Institute for Applied Physics, Florence, Italy, "Dielectric properties of body tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz-100 GHz,", www-page, available at http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/, cited 15.09.2007.

31. Alekseev, S. I., et al., "Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 65-70, 2008.
doi:10.1002/bem.20363

32. Gilb, P. K. J., "Wireless multimedia: A guide to the IEEE 802.15. 3 standard,", IEEE Standards Association, 2004.

33. Findla, R. P. and P. J. Dimbylow, "SAR in children from exposure to Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)," Proc. Symposium on Asia Pacific Electromagnetic Compatibility, 733-736, Singapore, May 2012.

34. Cecil, S., G. Schmid, K. Lamedschwandner, J. Morak, G. Schreier, A. Oberleitner, and M. Bammer, "Numerical assessment of specific absorption rate in the human body caused by NFC devices," IEEE Second International Workshop on Near-field Communication (NFC), 65-70, Monaco, Apr. 2010.

35. Pizarro, Y. A. A., A. A. de Salles, S. Severo, J. L. T. Garzon, and S. M. R. Bueno, "Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth user’s," IEEE Latin-America Conference on Communications (LATINCOM), 1-6, Cartagena, Colombia, Nov. 2014.

36. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, "Broadband tissue-equivalent phantom for BAN applications at millimeter waves," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 60, No. 7, 2259-2266, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2012.2195196

37. Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Federal Communications Commission Standard, OFT Bulletin 65, Edition 97-01.

38. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, "Antennas for body centric wireless communications at millimeter wave frequencies," Progress in Compact Antennas, InTech, 2014.