Vol. 59

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Investigations of SAR Distributions and Temperature Elevation on Human Body at 60 GHz with Corrugated Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna

By Purva Shrivastava and Thipparaju Rama Rao
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 59, 111-121, 2017


New generation wireless communications are expected to provide new services over the existing variety of wireless applications in the coming years. In this perspective, advances in utilization of computational electromagnetics (EM) and millimeter-waves (mmW) frequency bands make them as candidates for ultra-high-resolution and ultra-high-speed wireless communications. With the deployment of mmW wireless technologies, brinks of potential mmW induced biological and health effects should be evaluated carefully. The EM exposure is usually measured in terms of absorbed power from any user operating wireless devices. The exposure varies with the part of the body and location of the source that is exposed to the radio frequency waves. The purpose of this study is to observe EM exposure in terms of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and temperature elevations at mmWs from the designed Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna (ALTSA) at 60 GHz on different body parts utilizing EM computations and experiments with Infrared Thermal Camera.


Purva Shrivastava and Thipparaju Rama Rao, "Investigations of SAR Distributions and Temperature Elevation on Human Body at 60 GHz with Corrugated Antipodal Linear Tapered Slot Antenna," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 59, 111-121, 2017.


    1. Celik, N., M. F. Iskander, R. Emrick, S. J. Franson, and J. Holmes, "Implementation and experimental verification of a smart antenna system operating at 60 GHz band," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 56, No. 9, 2790-2800, Sep. 2008.

    2. Baykas, T., C. S. Sum, Z. Lan, J. Wang, M. A. Rahman, and H. Harada, "IEEE 802.15.3c: the first IEEE wireless standard for data rates over 1 Gb/s," IEEE Communications Mag., Vol. 49, No. 7, 114-121, Jul. 2011.

    3. Jiang, C., "Microwave and millimetre wave integrated circuit system in packaging,", DTU Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Jan. 2010.

    4. Huang, K. C. and D. J. Edwards, Millimetre Wave Antennas for Gigabit Wireless Communications, 1st Ed., John Wiley, Chichester, 2008.

    5. Cotton, S. L., W. G. Scanlon, and B. K. Madahar, "Millimeter-wave soldier-to-soldier communications for covert battlefield operations," IEEE Communications Mag., Vol. 47, No. 10, 72-81, Oct. 2009.

    6. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, "Wearable end-fire textile antenna for on-body communications at 60 GHz," IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Letters, Vol. 11, 799-802, Jul. 2012.

    7. Yong, S. K. and C. C. Chong, "An overview of multi gigabit wireless through millimeter wave technology: Potentials and technical challenges," EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Article ID 78907, 2007.

    8. Gutierrez, F., S. Agarwal, K. Parrish, and T. S. Rappaport, "On chip integrated antenna structures in CMOS for 60 GHz WPAN systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., Vol. 27, No. 8, 1367-1378, Oct. 2009.

    9. Zhadobov, M., N. Chahat, R. Sauleau, C. L. Quement, and Y. Le Drean, "Millimeter-wave interactions with the human body: State of knowledge and recent advances," Int. Journal of Microwave and Wirel. Tech., Vol. 3, No. 2, 237-247, Apr. 2011.

    10. Gandhi, O. P. and A. Riazi, "Absorption of millimeter waves by human beings and its biological implications," IEEE Trans. Microwave. Theory Tech., Vol. 34, No. 2, 228-235, Feb. 1986.

    11. Coburn, W. K. and A. I. Zaghloul, "Numerical analysis of stacked tapered slot antennas," 28th Annual Review of Prog. in Applied Comput. Electromagt., 112-117, Ohio, 2012.

    12. Shrivastava, P., D. Chandra, N. Tiwari, and T. Rama Rao, "Investigations on corrugation issues in SIW based antipodal linear tapered slot antenna for wireless networks at 60 GHz," Applied Computational. Electromagnetics Society Journal, ACES, Vol. 28, No. 10, 960-96, Oct. 2013.

    13. Shrivastava, P. and T. Rama Rao, "60 GHz radio link characteristic studies in hallway environment using antipodal linear tapered slot antenna," IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 15, 1793-1802, 2015.

    14. Bozzi, M., L. Perregrini, K. Wu, and P. Arcioni, "Current and future research trends in substrate integrated waveguide technology," Radioengineering, Vol. 18, No. 2, 201-20, 2009.

    15. Zhang, Y., W. Hong, and Z. Kuai, "A SIW fed antipodal linear tapered slot planar multi-beam antenna for millimeter-wave application," Journal of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 175-178, 2010.

    16. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, L. Le Coq, S. Alekseev, and R. Sauleau, "Characterization of the interactions between a 60-GHz antenna and the human body in an off-body scenario," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 60, No. 12, 5958-5965, Dec. 2012.

    17. IEEE Standards Interpretations for IEEE Std C95.1TM-2005, "IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz,".

    18. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, Vol. 74, No. 4, 494-522, Apr. 1998.

    19. Wu, T., T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collins, "Safe for generations to come: Considerations of safety for millimeter waves in wireless communications," IEEE Microwave Mag., Vol. 16, No. 2, 65-84, Mar. 2015.

    20. Wu, T., T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collins, "The human body and millimeter-wave wireless communication systems: Interactions and implications," IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Jun. 2015.

    21. Halla, P., "Specific absorption rate design of 3rd generation handsets,", Mater Dissertation Theses, Helsinki University Of Technology, Finland, 2008.

    22. Butet, R., Y. Toutain, S. L. Dall, J. Luc, L. J. Foged, and J. Estrada, "A fast SAR measurements system for production testing of personal wireless devices," IEEE Intern. Symp. on Antennas and Prop. Society (APSURSI), 2026-2027, Jul. 2013.

    23. Alekseev, S. I. and M. C. Ziskin, "Human skin permittivity determined by millimeter wave reflection measurements," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 28, No. 5, 331-339, 2007.

    24., http://www.abmillimetre.com/Introduction.html.

    25. Millimetre, A. B., "An 8 to 1000 GHz vector network analyser," Microwave Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3, Mar. 1992.

    26. Djerafi, T. and K. Wu, "Corrugated Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna array fed by quasi-triangular power divider," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 26, 139-151, 2012.

    27. Taringou, F., D. Dousset, J. Bornemann, and K. Wu, "Broadband CPW feed for millimeter-wave SIW-based antipodal linearly tapered slot antennas," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 61, No. 4, 1756-1762, 2013.

    28. Wang, W., X. Wang, W. Wang, and A. E. Fathy, "Planar high-gain antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna for passive millimeter-wave focal plane array imaging," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Phased Array Systems & Tech., 267-271, Waltham, MA, USA, Oct. 2013.

    29. Ismail, M. and A. R. Sebak, "High-gain SIW-based antipodal linearly tapered slot antenna for 60-GHz applications," Proc. IEEE Antennas Prop. Society Int. Symp., 217-218, Memphis, Tennessee, USA, Jun. 2014.

    30. Italian National Research Council, Institute for Applied Physics, Florence, Italy, "Dielectric properties of body tissue in the frequency range 10 Hz-100 GHz,", www-page, available at http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/, cited 15.09.2007.

    31. Alekseev, S. I., et al., "Millimeter wave dosimetry of human skin," Bioelectromagnetics, Vol. 29, No. 1, 65-70, 2008.

    32. Gilb, P. K. J., "Wireless multimedia: A guide to the IEEE 802.15. 3 standard,", IEEE Standards Association, 2004.

    33. Findla, R. P. and P. J. Dimbylow, "SAR in children from exposure to Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN)," Proc. Symposium on Asia Pacific Electromagnetic Compatibility, 733-736, Singapore, May 2012.

    34. Cecil, S., G. Schmid, K. Lamedschwandner, J. Morak, G. Schreier, A. Oberleitner, and M. Bammer, "Numerical assessment of specific absorption rate in the human body caused by NFC devices," IEEE Second International Workshop on Near-field Communication (NFC), 65-70, Monaco, Apr. 2010.

    35. Pizarro, Y. A. A., A. A. de Salles, S. Severo, J. L. T. Garzon, and S. M. R. Bueno, "Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the head of Google glasses and Bluetooth user’s," IEEE Latin-America Conference on Communications (LATINCOM), 1-6, Cartagena, Colombia, Nov. 2014.

    36. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, "Broadband tissue-equivalent phantom for BAN applications at millimeter waves," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 60, No. 7, 2259-2266, 2012.

    37. Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Federal Communications Commission Standard, OFT Bulletin 65, Edition 97-01.

    38. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, and R. Sauleau, "Antennas for body centric wireless communications at millimeter wave frequencies," Progress in Compact Antennas, InTech, 2014.