A self-consistent time-domain travelling-wave model for the simulation of self-assembled quantum dot (QD) vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is developed. The 1-D time-domain travelling-wave model takes into consideration of time-varying QD optical susceptibility, refractive index variation resulting from intersubband free-carrier absorption, homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening, and QD spontaneous emission noise source. Carrier concentration rate equations are considered simultaneously with the travelling wave model. Effects of temperature on optical susceptibility and carrier density in the active region are taken into account. The model is used to analyze the characteristics of 1.3-μm oxide-confined QD InAs-GaAs VCSEL. The field distribution resulting from time-domain travelling-wave equations, in both the active region and distributed Bragg reflectors, is obtained and used in finding the device characteristics including light-current static characteristics considering the thermal effect. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and modulation frequency response are obtained in terms of inhomogeneous broadening.
2. Towe, E., R. F. Leheny, and A. Yang, "A historical perspective of the development of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Vol. 6, No. 6, 1458-1464, 2000.
3. Mukai, K., Y. Nakata, K. Otsubo, M. Sugawara, N. Yokoyama, and H. Ishikawa, "1.3 μm CW lasing characteristics of self-assembled InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., Vol. 36, 472-478, Apr. 2000.
4. Zope, U., E. P. Samuel, M. P. Bhole, and D. S. Patil, "Optical field distribution in ZnO/MgZnO quantum dot nanostructure at 375-nm wavelength," Physica E, Vol. 42, 38-42, 2009.
5. Ustinov, V. M., Quantum Dot Lasers, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2007.
6. Ding, Y., W. J. Fan, D. W. Xu, L. J. Zhao, Y. Liu, and N. H. Zhu, "Fabrication and characterization of 1.3-μm InAs quantum-dot VCSELs and monolithic VCSEL arrays," Proc. SPIE-OSA-IEEE, Vol. 7631, 763102-1-763102-7, 2010.
7. Yu, H. C., J. S. Wang, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, F. I. Lai, Y. H. Chang, H. C. Kuo, C. P. Sung, H. P. D. Yang, K. F. Lin, J. M. Wang, J. Y. Chi, R. S. Hsiao, and S. Mikhrin, "1.3 μm InAs-InGaAs quantum-dot vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with fully doped DBRs grown by MBE," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, Vol. 18, No. 2, 418-420, 2006.
8. Tong, C. Z., D. W. Xu, S. F. Yoon, Y. Ding, and W. J. Fan, "Temperature characteristics of 1.3-μm p-doped InAs-GaAs quantum-dot vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Vol. 15, No. 3, 743-748, 2009.
9. Xu, D. W., S. F. Yoon, and C. Z. Tong, "Self-consistent analysis of confinement and output power in 1.3 μm InAs-GaAs quantum-dot VCSELs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., Vol. 44, No. 9, 879-885, 2008.
10. Abbaspour, H., V. Ahmadi, and M. H. Yavari, "Analysis of QD VCSEL dynamic characteristics considering homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Vol. 17, No. 5, 1327-1333, 2011.
11. Kim, J. E., E. Malić, M. Richter, A. Wilms, and A. Knorr, "Maxwell-Bloch equation approach for describing the microscopic dynamics of quantum-dot surface-emitting structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., Vol. 46, No. 7, 1115-1126, 2010.
12. Piskorski, L., M. Wasiak, R. Sarzala, and W. Nakwaski, "Structure optimisation of modern GaAs-based InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot VCSELs for optical fibre communication," Opto-Electronics Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, 217-224, 2009.
13. Yu, S. F., "Dynamic behavior of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 32, No. 7, 1168-1179, 1996.
14. Rossetti, M., P. Bardella, and I. Montrosset, "Time-domain travelling-wave model for quantum dot passively mode-locked lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 47, No. 2, 139-150, 2011.
15. Gioannini, M. and M. Rossetti, "Time-domain traveling wave model of quantum dot DFB lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., Vol. 17, No. 5, 1318-1326, 2011.
16. Michalzik, R., "Simple understanding of waveguiding in oxidized VCSELs," Annu. Rep. 1, 19-23, Dept. Optoelectron., Univ. Ulm, Ulm, Germany, 1995.
17. Sugawara, M., Self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Dots: Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 60, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1999.
18. Banihashemi, M. and V. Ahmadi, "Dynamic characteristics of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers," Applied Optics, Vol. 53, No. 12, 2595, 2014.
19. Tansu, N. and L. J. Mawst, "Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers," Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, No. 5, 054502, 2005.
20. Kim, J., C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, "Effect of inhomogeneous broadening on gain and phase recovery of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 11, 1670-1680, 2010.
21. Tong, C., S. Yoon, C. Ngo, C. Liu, and W. Loke, "Rate equations for 1.3-μm dots-under-a-well and dots-in-a-well self-assembled InAs-GaAs quantum-dot lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 42, No. 11, 1175-1183, 2006.
22. Li, X., "Distributed feedback lasers: Quasi-3D static and dynamic model," Optoelectronic Devices. Advanced Simulation and Analysis, 87-119, J. Piprek (ed.), Springer, Berlin, 2005.
23. Mulet, J. and S. Balle, "Mode-locking dynamics in electrically driven vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 41, No. 9, 1148-1156, 2005.
24. Yu, S. F., Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
25. Agrawal, G. P. and N. K. Dutta, Semiconductor Lasers, 2nd Ed., Van Nostrand, New York, 1993.
26. Yu, S. F., "An improved time-domain traveling-wave model for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 10, 1938-1948, 1998.
27. Xu, T., M. Rossetti, P. Bardella, and I. Montrosset, "Simulation and analysis of dynamic regimes involving ground and excited state transitions in quantum dot passively mode-locked lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 9, 1193-1202, 2012.
28. Berg, T. W. and J. Mørk, "Quantum dot amplifiers with high output power and low noise," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 82, No. 18, 3083-3085, 2003.
29. Zhao, Y.-G. and J. Mcinerney, "Transient temperature response of vertical-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Vol. 31, No. 9, 1668-1673, 1995.
30. Li, W., X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, "A traveling-wave model of laser diodes with consideration for thermal effects," Optical and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 36, No. 8, 709-724, 2004.
31. Nakwaski, W. and M. Osinski, "Thermal resistance of top-surface-emitting vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers and monolithic two-dimensional arrays," Electronics Letters, Vol. 28, No. 6, 572-574, 1992.