The joint direction-of-arrival (DOA) and frequency estimation problem has received significant attention recently in some applications, including pulsed Doppler radar, multipath parameter estimation, etc. This paper presents a novel virtual space-frequency matrix method to estimate the DOA and frequency jointly. Via the temporal smoothing technique, a virtual space-frequency matrix is defined, which includes the information of the incident DOAs and the frequencies. Making using of the proposed method, both the frequencies and DOAs can be estimated by eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the new defined virtual space-frequency matrix, respectively. Therefore, the pairing of the estimated DOAs and frequencies is automatically determined. Compared with related works, the proposed method can provide superior performance, such as higher estimation accuracy, without the procedure of parameter search or parameter matching. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.
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