Vol. 73
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERM 114 [2022] PIERM 113 [2022] PIERM 112 [2022] PIERM 111 [2022] PIERM 110 [2022] PIERM 109 [2022] PIERM 108 [2022] PIERM 107 [2022] PIERM 106 [2021] PIERM 105 [2021] PIERM 104 [2021] PIERM 103 [2021] PIERM 102 [2021] PIERM 101 [2021] PIERM 100 [2021] PIERM 99 [2021] PIERM 98 [2020] PIERM 97 [2020] PIERM 96 [2020] PIERM 95 [2020] PIERM 94 [2020] PIERM 93 [2020] PIERM 92 [2020] PIERM 91 [2020] PIERM 90 [2020] PIERM 89 [2020] PIERM 88 [2020] PIERM 87 [2019] PIERM 86 [2019] PIERM 85 [2019] PIERM 84 [2019] PIERM 83 [2019] PIERM 82 [2019] PIERM 81 [2019] PIERM 80 [2019] PIERM 79 [2019] PIERM 78 [2019] PIERM 77 [2019] PIERM 76 [2018] PIERM 75 [2018] PIERM 74 [2018] PIERM 73 [2018] PIERM 72 [2018] PIERM 71 [2018] PIERM 70 [2018] PIERM 69 [2018] PIERM 68 [2018] PIERM 67 [2018] PIERM 66 [2018] PIERM 65 [2018] PIERM 64 [2018] PIERM 63 [2018] PIERM 62 [2017] PIERM 61 [2017] PIERM 60 [2017] PIERM 59 [2017] PIERM 58 [2017] PIERM 57 [2017] PIERM 56 [2017] PIERM 55 [2017] PIERM 54 [2017] PIERM 53 [2017] PIERM 52 [2016] PIERM 51 [2016] PIERM 50 [2016] PIERM 49 [2016] PIERM 48 [2016] PIERM 47 [2016] PIERM 46 [2016] PIERM 45 [2016] PIERM 44 [2015] PIERM 43 [2015] PIERM 42 [2015] PIERM 41 [2015] PIERM 40 [2014] PIERM 39 [2014] PIERM 38 [2014] PIERM 37 [2014] PIERM 36 [2014] PIERM 35 [2014] PIERM 34 [2014] PIERM 33 [2013] PIERM 32 [2013] PIERM 31 [2013] PIERM 30 [2013] PIERM 29 [2013] PIERM 28 [2013] PIERM 27 [2012] PIERM 26 [2012] PIERM 25 [2012] PIERM 24 [2012] PIERM 23 [2012] PIERM 22 [2012] PIERM 21 [2011] PIERM 20 [2011] PIERM 19 [2011] PIERM 18 [2011] PIERM 17 [2011] PIERM 16 [2011] PIERM 14 [2010] PIERM 13 [2010] PIERM 12 [2010] PIERM 11 [2010] PIERM 10 [2009] PIERM 9 [2009] PIERM 8 [2009] PIERM 7 [2009] PIERM 6 [2009] PIERM 5 [2008] PIERM 4 [2008] PIERM 3 [2008] PIERM 2 [2008] PIERM 1 [2008]
2018-09-06
SAR Calculation & Temperature Response of Human Body Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiations at 28, 40 and 60 GHz mmWave Frequencies
By
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 73, 47-59, 2018
Abstract
The fast development of millimeter wave (mmWave) wireless communications and the associated concerns of potential negative impact on human health instigates the study on effects of mmWave frequency on the human body after exposure to electromagnetic field in terms of specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise in computer simulation technology (CST). SAR distributions due to radiating source antenna were investigated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in single and layered human tissues by examining the 1 g SAR (gram mass averaging) and point SAR (without mass averaging) at mmWave frequencies of 28, 40 and 60 GHz. The bioheat equation was used to find the temperature elevation in tissues. The FDTD grid size used in the computation was 1.00, 0.75, and 0.50 mm at 28, 40 and 60 GHz, respectively. The results concluded that at the radiated power of 20 and 24 dBm, SAR levels (without mass averaging) in the tissues at 28 GHz were less than 40 and 60 GHz. It was found that the temperature increase in the three layer model was 2-3 times higher than that in the single layer model. However, the temperature elevation never exceeded 1˚C in all the determined cases which was well below the threshold value for the generation of any adverse thermal effects in the tissues. Moreover, the effect of distance between the source and tissue model was investigated. It was found that the SAR decreased as the distance increased from the radiating source. The results presented here will assist researchers in examining and simulating the performance of upcoming mmWave wireless networks in terms of exposure to human tissues.
Citation
Tooba Hamed Moazam Maqsood , "SAR Calculation & Temperature Response of Human Body Exposure to Electromagnetic Radiations at 28, 40 and 60 GHz mmWave Frequencies," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 73, 47-59, 2018.
doi:10.2528/PIERM18061102
http://www.jpier.org/PIERM/pier.php?paper=18061102
References

1. Zhadobov, M., N. Chahat, R. Sauleau, C. L. Quement, and Y. L. Drean, "Millimeter-wave interactions with the human body: State of knowledge and recent advances," International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 2011.

2. Sabbah, A. I., N. I. Dib, and M. A. Al-Nimr, "Evaluation of specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in a multi-layered human head model exposed to radio frequency radiation using the finite difference time domain method," IET Microwave Antennas Propag., Vol. 5, 1073-1080, 2011.
doi:10.1049/iet-map.2010.0172

3. Niu, Y., Y. Li, D. Jin, L. Su, and A. V. Vasilakos, "A survey of millimeter wave (mmWave) communications for 5G: Opportunities and challenges," Wireless Networks, Vol. 21, 2657-2676, 2015.
doi:10.1007/s11276-015-0942-z

4. Millimeter Wave, "The battle of the bands,", National Instrument, [online], available: http://www.ni.com/white-paper/53096/en/, 2016.

5., , 60 GHz Wireless Technology Overview, http://www.mmwaves.com/products.cfm/product/20-194-0.htm, accessed Nov. 20, 2016.

6. Rashid, M. and S. Hossain, "Antenna solution for millimeter wave mobile communication (MWMC): 5G," International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology (IJSRET), Vol. 3, 1157-1161, 2014.

7. Chahat, N., M. Zhadobov, L. Le Coq, S. Alekseev, and R. Sauleau, "Characterization of the Interactions between a 60-GHz antenna and the human body in an off-body scenario," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, 5958-5965, 2012.
doi:10.1109/TAP.2012.2211326

8. Robert, F. C., L. U. Jerry, Jr., and L. M. David, "Evaluating compliance with FCC guidelines for human exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields,", OET Bulletin 65, Federal Communications Commission, 1997.

9. Wittig, T., "SAR overview,", www.cst.com, accessed Nov. 25, 2016.

10. Aly, A. A. and M. Piket May, "FDTD computation for SAR induced in human head due to exposure to EMF from mobile phone," Advanced Computing an International Journal, Vol. 5, 2014.

11. David, M. and W. Kwok, "Additional information for evaluating compliance of mobile and portable devices with FCC limits for human exposure to radiofrequency emission,", OET Bulletin 65, Federal Communications Commission, 2001.

12. Gustrau, F. and A. Bahr, "W-band investigation of material parameters, SAR distribution, and thermal response in human tissue," IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory Tech., Vol. 50, 2393-2400, 2002.
doi:10.1109/TMTT.2002.803445

13. Wu, T., T. S. Rappaport, and C. M. Collins, "The human body and millimeter wave wireless communication systems: Interactions and implications," IEEE International Conference on Communications, London, UK, 2015.

14. Miklavcic, D. and N. Pavselj, "Electric properties of tissues," Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, 2006.

15. Gabriel, C., S. Gabriely, and E. Corthout, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 41, No. 11, 2231-2249, 1996.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001

16. Strydom, M. and T. Wittig, "Bioheat simulations with CST studio suite,".
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/41/11/001

17., "IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with respect to Human Exposure to the Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields 3 kHz to 300 GHz,", IEEE Std., C95.1, 2005.

18. Kanezaki, A., A. Hirata, S. Watanabe, and H. Shirai, "Parameter variation effects on temperature elevation in a steady-state, one-dimensional thermal model for millimeter-wave exposure of oneand three-layer human tissue," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 55, No. 16, 4647-4659, 2010.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/16/003

19. Wang, J. and Q. Wang, Body Area Communications: Channel Modeling, Communication Systems, and EMC, 1st Ed., John Wiley & Sons Singapore PTE Ltd, ISBN: 978-1-118-18848-4, 2013.

20. [ICNIRP1998] International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Phys., Vol. 74, No. 4, 494-522, 1998.

21. Miguel-Bilbao, S., V. Ramos, and J. Blas, "Comments on assessment of polarization dependence of body shadow effect on dosimetry measurements in the 2.4GHz band," Bio-electromagnetics, Vol. 38, No. 4, 315-321, 2017.

22. Uusitupa, T., I. Laakso, S. Ilvonen, and K. Nikoskinen, "SAR variation study from 300 to 5000 MHz for 15 voxel models including different postures," Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 55, No. 4, 1157-1176, 2010.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/55/4/017