Vol. 75

Front:[PDF file] Back:[PDF file]
Latest Volume
All Volumes
All Issues

Effect of Quiet Zone Ripples on Antenna Pattern Measurement

By Xiaoming Liu and Junsheng Yu
Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 75, 49-60, 2018


Compact antenna test range (CATR) is one of the most commonly used antenna measurement techniques, particularly in the microwave/millimetre wave range. A conventional industry standard for the quiet zone of a CATR is ±0.5 dB amplitude variation and ±5º phase variation to conduct measurement with acceptable accuracy. Such a high standard, however, has not been rigorously verified in theory. And it is in contrast to 22.5º phase variation condition for the far-field method. Being inspired by many measurements, where the quiet zone is not up to the industry standard while satisfactory results are still obtained, this paper systematically investigates the effect of quiet zone performance on the radiation pattern measurement. It aims at searching for a guideline specifications for the construction of a CATR. Theoretical models have been built to predict the quiet zone performance on the antenna pattern measurement, particularly on the main beam. Many factors have been considered, such as amplitude and phase ripple, amplitude/phase taper, and electrical size. In coupling with experimental study, it is shown that a much more relaxed condition can be followed depending on the required measurement accuracy.


Xiaoming Liu and Junsheng Yu, "Effect of Quiet Zone Ripples on Antenna Pattern Measurement," Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, Vol. 75, 49-60, 2018.


    1. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 3rd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2005.

    2. Rieckmann, C., C. G. Parini, R. S. Donnan, and J. Dupuy, "Experimental validation of the design performance for a spherical main-mirror tri-reflector antenna CATR operating at 90 GHz," Proceedings of 28th ESA Antenna Workshop on Space Antenna Systems and Technologies,, WPP-247, Vol. 1, 395-400, May 31-June 3, 2005.

    3., , http://www.space-airbusds.com/en/equipment/compensated-compact-ranges-wjq.html, Accessed June 6, 2016.

    4., , https://www.near-field.com/products/CompactAntennaTestRangeSolutions.aspx,AccessedJune 8, 2016.

    5., , IEEE Std 149TM-1979(R2008) Revision of IEEE Std149-1965.

    6. Yu, J. and X. Chen, Millimeter Wave and Terahertz Antenna Measurement Technique, Science Publication Press, Beijing, 2015.

    7. Beeckman, P. A., "High-precision measurements on a compact antenna test range," Electronic Letters, Vol. 19, 769-770, 1983.

    8. Viikari, V., et al., "Antenna pattern correction technique based on an adaptive array algorithm," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, 2194-2199, 2007.

    9. Wayne, D., J. A. Fordham, and J. McKenna, "Non-ideal quiet zone effects on compact range measurements," 2015 9th European Conference on Proceedings of Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Lisbon, Portugal, April 12-17, 2015.

    10. Gregson, S. F. and C. G. Parini, "Examination of the effect of common CATR quiet zone specifications on antenna pattern measurement uncertainties," Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference (LAPC 2017), Loughborough, UK, November 13-14, 2017.

    11. Viikari, V., et al., "A feed scanning based APC technique for compact antenna test ranges," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, 3160-3165, 2005.

    12. Karttunen, A., et al., "Antenna tests with a hologram-based CATR at 650 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, 711-710, 2009.

    13. Habersack, J., J. Hartmann, and H.-J. Steiner, "Quiet zone field enlargement of dual reflector compact ranges for testing of complex satellite antenna farms," 3rd European Conference on Proceeding of Antennas and Propagation, 2009, EuCAP 2009, 924-927, Berlin, Germany, March 23-27, 2009.

    14. Capozzoli, A., G. D’Elia, and A. Liseno, "Phaseless characterisation of compact antenna test ranges," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 1, 860-866, 2007.

    15. Li, Z. P., et al., "Realization of wideband hologram compact antenna test range by linearly adjusting the feed location," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, 5628-5633, 2014.

    16. Hartmann, J., J. Habersack, and H.-J. Steiner, "A new large compensated compact range for measurement of future satellite generations ," Proceedings of 24th AMTA 2002, Cleveland, US, November 03-08, 2002.

    17. Dudok, E., D. Fasold, and H.-J. Steiner, "Development of an optimized compact test range," Proceedings of 11th ESTEC Antenna Workshop on Antenna Measurements, 87-94, Goeteborg, Sweden, June 20-22, 1988.

    18. Smith, G. F., Quasioptical Systems: Gaussian Beam Quasioptical Propagation and Applications, Wiley & IEEE Press, New York, 1998.

    19. Wang, L., Y. Guo, and W.Wu, "Wideband 60 GHz circularly polarised stacked patch antenna array in low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 9, 436-445, 2015.

    20. Vera Lopez, A. L., W. T. Khan, and J. Papapolymerou, "Orientation study to minimise coupling effects in radiation patterns of dual-packaged compact millimeter-wave antennas," IET Microw. Antennas Propag., Vol. 9, 159-165, 2015.

    21. Cappellin, C., S. Busk Sørensen, and M. Paquay, "An accurate and efficient error predictor tool for CATR measurements," 2010 Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Proceedings of Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Barcelona, Spain, April 12-16, 2010.

    22. Mitchell, R. L., "On the Reduction of Stray Signal Errors in Antenna Pattern Measurements," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 43, 629-630, 1995.

    23. Viikari, V. and A. V. Raisanen, "Antenna pattern correction technique based on signal-to-interference ratio optimization," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 6, 267-270, 2007.