Development of Compartment Syndrome (CS) could affect blood flow to muscles, nerves, and as a result could causes permanent damage to tissues and nerves with risk of amputations and even death. The lack of non-invasive clinical diagnosis of compartment syndrome has led to thousands of permanent nerve and tissue damages. This paper aims to present a novel method, design concept, and numerical realization of non-invasive Radio Frequency (RF) based detection of compartment syndrome. The proposed method uses electromagnetic waves, produced by a small printed antenna at frequency of 300 MHz for identifying compartment syndrome. The effects of compartment syndrome and changes on tissue electrical properties are taken into account, since the ways in which electrical properties differences between normal and injured tissue should aid diagnosis on injured area by RF-wave radiation. We used a numerical leg model to identify inter-compartmental edema size of the lower leg, the most commonly effected area for patients. Because the antenna can be made very small, RF-based detection of compartment syndrome applications can be extended to small-scale devices. Numerical studies show that compartment syndrome as small as 5 ml can be detected with this method. We hope that our novel method will improve both diagnosis and overall patient care for compartment syndrome. Moreover, this detection system is intended to provide a safe, economical, and less distressing method to monitor compartment syndrome.
2. Ferri, F. F., Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018 E-Book: 5 Books in 1, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2017.
3. Whitesides, Jr., T. E., and M. M. Heckman, "Acute compartment syndrome: Update on diagnosis and treatment," Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Vol. 4, No. 4, 209-218, Aug. 1996.
4. Via, A. G., F. Oliva, M. Spoliti, and N. Maffulli, "Acute compartment syndrome," Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, 18-22, Mar. 2015.
5., , http://www.who.int/surgery/publications/s16368e.pdf?ua=1.
6. Loutridis, A., M. John, and M. J. Ammann, "Folded meander line antenna for wireless M-Bus in the VHF and UHF bands," Electronics Letters, Vol. 51, No. 15, 1138-1140, Jul. 2015.
7. Bonnet, B., F. Guitton, Y. Raingeaud, and D. Magnon, "Resonant frequency, bandwidth and gain of meander line antenna," 11th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics, 1-4, 2005.
8. Bhaskar, S. and A. K. Singh, "Capacitive tip loaded linearly tapered meander line antenna for UHF RFID tag applications," IEEE Applied Electromagnetics Conference, 1-2, 2017.
9. Suh, S. Y., A. E. Waltho, L. Krishnamurthy, D. Souza, S. Gupta, H. K. Pan, and V. K. Nair, "A miniaturized dual-band dipole antenna with a modified meander line for laptop computer application in the 2.5 and 5.25 GHz WLAN band," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 2617-2620, 2006.
10. Volakis, J. L., C.-C. Chen, and K. Fujimoto, Small Antennas: Miniaturization Techniques & Applications, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2010.
11. Fujimoto, K. and H. Morishita, Modern Small Antennas, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2013.
12., , https://www.ansys.com/-/media/ansys/corporate/resourcelibrary/techbrief/ab-ansys-hfss-forantenna- simulation.pdf.
13., , http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/tissprop/htmlclie/htmlclie.php.
14. Gabriel, S., R. W. Lau, and C. Gabriel, "The dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. measurements in the frequency range 10Hz to 20GHz," Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 41, No. 11, 2251-2269, Nov. 1996.
15. Gabriel, C., A. Peyman, and E. H. Grant, "Electrical conductivity of tissue at frequencies below 1MHz," Physics in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 54, No. 16, 4863-4878, Jul. 2009.
16. Yazdandoost, K. Y. and I. Laakso, "RF field based detection of compartment syndrome," 13th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology, 2019.
17., , https://catalog.ansys.com/product/5bfec4c8393ff6c28c1997da/ansys-human-body-m.
18. Schiffer, E., E. Van Gessel, R. Fournier, A. Weber, and Z. Gamulin, "Cerebrospinal fluid density influences extent of plain bupivacaine spinal anesthesia," Anesthesiology, Vol. 96, No. 6, 1325-1330, Jun. 2002.
19., , IEEE standard for safety levels with respect to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz, IEEE Standards C95.1, 2005.
20., "Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices — Human models, instrumentation, and procedures — Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for wireless communication devices used in close proximity to the human body (frequency range of 30MHz to 6 GHz),", IEC 62209-2, Mar. 2010.
21. ICNIRP, "Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (up to 300GHz)," Health Phys., Vol. 74, No. 4, 494-522, Apr. 1998.