A method is given for evaluating electromagnetic scattering by an irregular surface with spatially-varying impedance. This uses an operator expansion with respect to impedance variation and allows examination of its effects and the resulting modification of the field scattered by the rough surface. For a fixed rough surface and randomly varying impedance, expressions are derived for the scattered field itself, and for the coherent field with respect to impedance variation for both flat and rough surfaces in the form of effective impedance conditions.
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