The field of wireless body area networks (WBAN) has seen growing interest in recent years due to applications of wearable devices, such as in healthcare. Effective on-body antenna design is necessary to provide optimal performance in real-world scenarios. This study compares several wearable antenna types, which are the monopole, patch, and e-textile antennas, to determine how human body motion affects antenna performance using a human body phantom model and human volunteers. The monopole antenna overall outperforms the patch antenna at 915 MHz and the e-textile antenna at 2.45 GHz and a Weibull distribution can be used as a probability distribution for S21 during an arm swing motion for all antenna types tested.
1. Kamarudin, M. R., Y. I. Nechayev, and P. S. Hall, "Performance of antennas in the on-body environment," 2005 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, July 2005.
2. Alomainy, A., Y. Hao, C. G. Parini, and P. S. Hall, "Comparison between two different antennas for UWB on-body propagation measurements," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 4, 31-34, 2005. doi:10.1109/LAWP.2005.844143
3. Ghannoum, H., C. Roblin, and S. Bories, "UWB antennas in body area networks," IEEE International Workshop on Antenna Technology Small Antennas and Novel Metamaterials, March 2006.
4. Hao, Y., A. Alomainy, Y. Zhao, C. G. Parini, Y. Nechayev, P. Hall, and C. C. Constantinou, "Statistical and deterministic modelling of radio propagation channels in WBAN at 2.45 GHz," 2006 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, July 2006.
5. Alomainy, A., Y. Hao, A. Owadally, C. G. Parini, Y. Nechayev, C. C. Constantinou, and P. S. Hall, "Statistical analysis and performance evaluation for on-body radio propagation with microstrip patch antennas," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 1, 245-248, January 2007. doi:10.1109/TAP.2006.888462
6. Alomainy, A., A. Sani, A. Rahman, J. G. Santas, and Y. Hao, "Transient characteristics of wearable antennas and radio propagation channels for ultrawideband body-centric wireless communications," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 875-884, April 2009. doi:10.1109/TAP.2009.2014588
7. Koohestani, M., A. A. Moreira, and A. K. Skrivervik, "System fidelity factor evaluation of wearable ultra-wideband antennas for on-body communications," IET Microwaves, Antennas, and Propagation, Vol. 9, No. 10, 1054-1058, July 2015. doi:10.1049/iet-map.2014.0275
8. Touvinen, T., K. Y. Yazdandoost, and J. Iinatti, "Comparison of the performance of the two different UWB antennas for the use in WBAN on-body communications," 2012 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), March 2012.
9. Hall, P. and Y. Hao, Antennas and Propagation for Body-Centric Wireless Communications, 2nd Ed., Ch. 3, 63-106, Artech House, Norwood, MA, USA, 2012.
10. Conway, G. and W. Scanlon, "Antennas for over-body-surface communication at 2.45 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 57, No. 4, 855-884, April 2009.
11. Touvinen, T., K. Y. Yazdandoost, and J. Iinatti, "Comparison of the performance of the two different UWB antennas for the use in WBAN on-body communications," 2012 6th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EUCAP), March 2012.
12. Trajkovkj, J., J. Zürcher, and A. Skrivervik, "Performance of UHF W-BAN antennas in a real environment scenario," 2014 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC), November 2014.
13. Paraskevopoulos, A., A. Alexandridis, T. Zervos, A. Michalopoulou, F. Lazarakis, and J. C. Vardaxoglou, "Modelling of dynamic on-body channels using different types of wearable antennas," The 8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2014), 852-856, The Hague, 2014. doi:10.1109/EuCAP.2014.6901896
14. Lee, G., B. Garner, and Y. Li, "Investigation of on-body wave propagations using an arm-swinging phantom model and motion capture technique," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 69, No. 2, 1219-1223, February 2021. doi:10.1109/TAP.2020.3005049
15. Advanced MRI, National Institutes of Health, Dielectric Phantom Recipe Generator, Accessed: December 14, 2018, [Online], Available: https://amri.ninds.nih.gov/cgi-bin/phantomrecipe.
16. Federal Communications Commission, Body Tissue Dielectric Parameters, Accessed: December 14, 2018, [Online], Available: https://www.fcc.gov/general/body-tissue-dielectric-parameters.
17. Nie, Z., J. Ma, Z. Li, H. Chen, and L. Wang, "Dynamic propagation channel characterization and modeling for human body communication," Sensors, Vol. 12, 17569-17587, 2012. doi:10.3390/s121217569
18. Cotton, S. L., S. K. Yoo, and W. G. Scanlon, "A measurements based comparison of new and classical models used to characterize fading in body area networks," 2014 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Workshop Series on RF and Wireless Technologies for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications (IMWS-Bio2014), December 2014.
19. Rosini, R., R. Verdone, and R. D'Errico, "Body-to-body indoor channel modeling at 2.45 GHz," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 62, No. 11, November 2014.
20. Bhargav, N., S. L. Cotton, G. A. Conway, A. McKernan, and W. G. Scanlon, "Simultaneous channel measurements of the on-body and body-to-body channels," 2016 IEEE 27th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), September 2016.