Vol. 138
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Vol. 138, 91-104, 2023
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Sub-6 GHz Metallic via Integrated MIMO Antenna Array for 5G Smartphone
Inderpreet Kaur , Banani Basu and Anil Singh
A miniaturized and closely packed eight element annular ring multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array is designed to operate from 3 to 6 GHz band for 5G smartphone applications. In MIMO, the orthogonally placed antenna pairs maintain high isolation. The proposed decoupling structures placed between two adjacent antenna pairs improve the isolation. The decoupling structure consists of a rectangular metallic strip with metallic vias that reduces the mutual coupling and excites the additional modes to extend the bandwidth from 3 to 6 GHz. The MIMO structure offers isolation of more than 24 dB, ECC of less than 0.1, TARC of less than 7 dB over the complete operation band, DG of 10 dB, and more than 95% efficiency. The specific absorption rates (SARs) of the antenna placed in the human head and hand models are 0.41 W/Kg and 0.66 W/Kg, respectively. The performance obtained with the fabricated prototype offers excellent matching with that of the simulated ones.
Sub-6 GHz Metallic via Integrated MIMO Antenna Array for 5G Smartphone
Vol. 138, 79-90, 2023
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A Multi-Slot UWB Monopole Antenna with Dual Band Notch Characteristics
Pasumarthi Srinivasa Rao , Bondili Siva Hari Prasad , Jagabathuni Kavitha and Uppala Jayaram
The dual band notched features of an ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna are presented. The radiator element is a rectangular one with several slots. The planned antenna's operational frequency ranges from 2.8 to 10.6 GHz. By embedding a rectangular slot on the radiator and a folding stepped resonator in the ground plane, it is possible to create dual notched bands that are 3.76-5.9 GHz with a central frequency of 5.2 GHz (WLAN) and 2.85-3.32 GHz with a centre frequency of 3.2 GHz (WiMAX). The antenna measures 32 × 32 mm2 across the board. In terms of VSWR, group delay, efficiency, and radiation pattern, the antenna's performance is confirmed. Results from simulation and testing of the stated antenna are closely matched.
A Multi-slot UWB Monopole Antenna with Dual Band Notch Characteristics
Vol. 138, 65-78, 2023
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A Novel Square Array Reflector Plate Equipped Mushroom Cloud Patch Antenna
Maniram Ahirwar and Virendra Singh Chaudhary
A Mushroom-Cloud-shaped wide slot Microstrip patch antenna (MC-MSPA) was discovered and proved to be a viable option for Wideband applications in this research study. The given antenna has a high radiation and wideband reflection coefficient of 134.47% from 1.15 GigaHz to 5.87 GigaHz for |S11|<-10 dB. This antenna has a peak gain of 6.47 dBi at 4.6 GigaHz and 6.1 dBi at 5 GigaHz, as well as an return loss of 47.37 dB at 1.88 GHz. MC-MSPA has optimised dimensions of 0.73λg×0.72λg×0.02λg. Furthermore, a reflecting surface of a 7×7 square-shaped array beneath the ground plane has been included to provide even higher gain and directivity. The proposed MC-MSPA+RP antenna has a fractional bandwidth of 63% with dual bands from 1.438 to 2.782 GigaHz and 38.89% from 3.964 to 5.878 GigaHz, with a peak gain of 9.657 dBi, maximum directivity of 10.44 dBi at 5 GigaHz, and maximum return loss of 54 dB at 4.9 GigaHz. Reflector plate electrical dimensions have been enhanced to 0.87λg×0.87λg×0.24λg. The proposed design improves gain and directivity, both of which are important for WLAN and Wi-MAX applications.
A Novel Square Array Reflector Plate Equipped Mushroom Cloud Patch Antenna
Vol. 138, 51-63, 2023
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Multiband Patch Antenna with Sinc-Shaped Edges for Sub-6 GHz Applications
Qusai Hadi Sultan , Ahmed M. A. Sabaawi , Bariq M. Abawi and Saad W. O. Luhaib
In this paper, several multiband patch antennas with sinc-shaped edges were analyzed, designed, simulated and implemented for modern sub-6 GHz applications. The aim is to use the sinc function parameters such as amplitude and number of maxima (frequency) to control the antenna performance such as resonance and radiation characteristics. It is shown that changing the sinc pattern parameters has a significant impact on the resonance of the antenna, and hence these parameters can be used to directly control the multiband behavior of the antenna. The proposed antenna designs were manufactured, and their performance was tested experimentally in the lab and compared to simulation results. An acceptable agreement between experimental and simulated results was achieved.
Multiband Patch Antenna with SINC-shaped Edges for Sub-6 GHz Applications
Vol. 138, 39-49, 2023
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Performance Improvement of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Based on Active Hybrid Design and MIMO Configuration
Mohammed Quasim and Haider J. Abd
The performance of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) for hybrid optical links SMF/FSO based on different data rates and MIMO configuration techniques was obtained using OptiSystemTM which is close to the results of the experimental system. The developed system was tested with various transmission distances: 20, 30, 40, and 50 km, and in the existence of many configuration kinds and modulations. In addition to that the hybrid system was estimated with different weather cases: clear, rain, and snow. The results state that the performance of the OOK-NRZ system reveals better performance than OOK-RZ system under the same conditions. Also, the performance of the free space link is better than the fiber link formost of the link ranges considered and configurations. For OOK-NRZ of the fiber link, it was found that the MIMO 8×8 technique has better system performance than other configurations, and the Q-factor = 11.39 and BER = 5.4×10-30 for a length of 50 Km while for the FSO link, it was found that MIMO 8×8 indicates a high performance for Q-factor = 12.7 and BER = 1.8×10-37. The maximum FSO link distances under different weather conditions and coupling ratios were found. For BER≤10−9, in NRZ format for SMF 50 km utilizing MISO8×1 technology in clear weather for 10 Gbps, 15 Gbps, and 20 Gbps for FSO links, the maximum accessible lengths are 0.6 Km, 0.51 Km, and 0.43 Km, respectively. The process is expanded to include snow conditions for data rates of 10 Gbps, 15 Gbps, and 20 Gbps for FSO links with lengths of 0.4 Km, 0.3 Km, and 0.26 Km, respectively.
Performance Improvement of the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser Based on Active Hybrid Design and MIMO Configuration
Vol. 138, 27-37, 2023
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Design of a Compact Dual Slot Loaded Planar Monopole Antenna with Dual Band Rejection Properties for Wideband Applications
Mattaparthi Nirmala and Nagumalli Deepika Rani
This paper presents a novel design of Compact Notched Wide Band Antenna that has dual notches in the band of Wireless Local Area Network (5.15 GHz-5.825 GHz) and X-band Satellite Communication (8 GHz-12 GHz). The proposed antenna has a defective ground structure (DGS) to operate the antenna for wide band applications. Notch bands are achieved by inserting slots on the radiating patch and feed line. A horizontal S-shaped slot on patch is responsible for the notch in the band of wireless local area network, and an inverted U slot is used in feed line to get a notch in the band of Satellite Communication. The proposed antenna is fabricated using FR4 substrate of size 26 x 26 x 1.6 mm3 and tested using Vector Network Analyzer MS2037C. Although the measured results are slightly changed in comparison with simulated, they agree reasonably well. The measured result also reveals that the prototype antenna is in compact size and resonated from 4.24 GHz-12.59 GHz with two notch bands centered at 5.8 GHz and 10.3 GHz.
Design of a Compact Dual Slot Loaded Planar Monopole Antenna with Dual Band Rejection Properties for Wideband Applications
Vol. 138, 13-26, 2023
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Multi-Objective Optimization and Analysis of a Novel Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Huajun Ran , Linfeng Wu , Wenbo Bai , Junye Zhao and Yunpan Liu
In order to reduce the cogging torque and improve the back electromotive force (EMF) performance of the motor, a three-phase permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motor with magnetic pole eccentricity and slotting design is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the analytical expression for the cogging torque of the motor is derived based on the energy method, and the factors influencing cogging torque are analyzed. Subsequently, taking the cogging torque and the amplitude of the back EMF as the optimization objectives, the response surface method (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) are combined to obtain the optimal values for the eccentricity distance of the PMs, slotting radius, and slot position. Finally, a finite element model is established for simulation comparison. The results show that compared with the traditional model, the optimized model effectively reduces the cogging torque while slightly sacrificing the back-EMF amplitude, and improves the sine degree of the no-load back-EMF.
Multi-objective Optimization and Analysis of a Novel Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Vol. 138, 1-12, 2023
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Structural and Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Carbon-Coated Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared via Hydrothermal Method
Nur Amirah Athirah binti Zaini , Iffah Zulaikha binti Azman , Ling Jin Kiong , Jose Rajan , Muhammad Hafiz Mazwir and Mohamad Ashry Jusoh
The rapid advancement of communication technology has led to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI), or electromagnetic (EM) pollution. This is a cause for concern, as EMI can disrupt communication services, damage electronic equipment, and pose health risks. Regulatory bodies are working to develop standards for the safe use of wireless devices, but the problem of EMI is likely to continue to grow as the number of Internet of Thing (IoT) devices continues to increase. To address this issue, this study investigated the effectiveness of carbon-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles as a potential material for electromagnetic shielding. The synthesis of cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles was successfully achieved using the co-precipitation method. Subsequently, a carbon coating was applied to the nanoparticles through a hydrothermal process using a 200 mL autoclave made of teflon-lined stainless steel. This process was carried out at a temperature of 180˚C for a duration of 12 hours, with a heating rate of 8˚C per minute. This study examined both uncoated and carbon-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles at various ratios of glucose to CoFe2O4 (1:1, 2:1, and 3:1) using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and higher resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis. The XRD analysis revealed distinct and well-defined peaks corresponding to CoFe2O4, indicating the successful synthesis of the nanoparticles. The crystallite size of the uncoated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was measured to be 11.47 nm, while for the carbon-coated CoFe2O4, the average crystallite size was determined to be 14.15 nm through XRD analysis. The results obtained from the FTIR analysis were consistent with previous reports and confirmed the formation of spinel CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, as suggested by published data. The morphological and structural properties of the prepared samples were further characterized using FESEM and HRTEM analysis, which demonstrated uniformity in both particle size distribution and morphology. Overall, the research findings indicated that the structure and properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were significantly influenced by the carbon coating process. Notably, the optimum ratio of carbon to CoFe2O4 was found to be 2:1, which resulted in the highest carbon thickness. The electromagnetic properties of the samples were evaluated using a vector network analyzer (VNA) and measured S-parameters in the frequency range of 8.2 to 12.4 GHz, known as the x-band region, suitable for radar applications. The sample with a carbon ratio of 2:1 exhibited the highest total shielding effectiveness (SE) of -17 dB at approximately 10 GHz. As a conclusion, the carbon-coated CoFe2O4 nanoparticles showed promising potential as an effective material for shielding against electromagnetic wave pollution, particularly when the carbon coating and filler composition reached an optimal point. Additionally, the shielding effectiveness performance of the sample could be further enhanced by incorporating a conductive polymer as an auxiliary material.
Structural and Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Carbon-coated Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared via Hydrothermal Method