The Finite Volume Time-Domain (FVTD) method finds limited application in the simulation of electromagnetic scattering from electrically large scatterers because of the fine discretization required in terms of points-per-wavelength. An efficient implementation of a higher-order FVTD method is proposed for electrically large, perfectly conducting scatterers. Higher-order and fine-grid accuracy are preserved, despite using only a first-order spatial accuracy and a coarse grid in substantial parts of the FVTD computational domain, by partially incorporating a time-domain Physical Optics (PO) approximation for the surface current. This can result in considerable savings in computational time while analyzing geometries containing electrically large, smooth sections using the FVTD method. The higher-order FVTD method in the present work is based on an Essentially Non-Oscillatory (ENO) reconstruction and results are presented for two-dimensional perfectly conducting scatterers subject to Transverse Magnetic (TM) or Transverse Electric (TE) illumination.
2. Shankar, V., A gigaflop performance algorithm for solving Maxwell's equations of electromagnetics, 91-1578 AIAA Paper, June 1991.
3. Shang, J. S., "Characteristic-based algorithms for solving the Maxwell equations in the time domain," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 3, 15-25, 1995.
4. Yee, K. S. and J. S. Chen, "The finite-difference time domain (FDTD) and ¯nite-volume time-domain (FVTD) methods in solving Maxwell's equations," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 3, 354-363.
5. Chatterjee, A. and A. Shrimal, "Essentially nonoscillatory finite volume scheme for electromagnetic scattering by thin dielectric coatings," AIAA Journal, Vol. 42, No. 2, 361-365, 2004.
6. Bhattacharya, A. and A. Chatterjee, "Finite volume time-domain computations for electromagnetic scattering from intake configurations," Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 42, No. 2, 572-573, 2005.
7. Georgakopoulos, S. V., C. R. Britcher, C. A. Balanis, and R. A. Renaut, "Higher-order finite-difference schemes for electromagnetic radiation, scattering, and penetration, Part I: Theory," IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 44, No. 1, 134-142, 2002.
8. Wang, S. and F. L. Teixeira, "Grid-dispersion error reduction for broadband FDTD electromagnetic simulations," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1440-1443, 2004.
9. Okoniewski, M., E. Okoniewska, and M. A. Stuchly, "Three-dimensional subgridding algorithm for FDTD," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 45, No. 3, 422-428, 1997.
10. Djordjevic, M. and B. M. Notaros, "Higher order hybrid method of moments-physical optics modeling technique for radiation and scattering from large perfectly conducting surfaces," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 2, 800-813, 2005.
11. Abdel Moneum, M. A., X. Shen, J. L. Volakis, and O. Graham, "Hybrid PO-MOM analysis of large axi-symmetric radomes," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 12, 1657-1666, 2001.
12. Yangi, L.-X., D.-B. Ge, and B. Wei, "FDTD/TDPO hybrid approach for analysis of the EM scattering of combinative objects," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 76, 275-284, 2007.
13. Chou, H.-T. and H.-T. Hsu, "Hybridization of simulation codes based on numerical high and low frequency techniques for the e±cient antenna design in the presence of electrically large and complex structures," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 78, 173-187, 2008.
14. Fumeaux, C., D. Baumann, P. Leuchtman, and R. Vahldieck, "A generalized local time-step scheme for efficient FVTD simulations in strongly inhomogeneous media ," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, No. 3, 1067-1076, 2004.
15. Firsov, D. K. and J. LoVetri, "FVTD-integral equation hybrid for Maxwell's equations," International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, Vol. 21, 29-42, 2007.
16. Burkholder, R. J. and T.-H. Lee, "Adaptive sampling for fast physical optics numerical integration," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 53, No. 5, 1843-1845, 2005.
17. Chatterjee, A. and R.-S. Myong, "Modified finite volume time domain method for efficient prediction of radar cross section at high frequencies," Journal of the Korea Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science, Vol. 8, No. 3, 100-109, 2008.
18. Shu, C. W. and S. Osher, "Efficient implementation of essentially non-oscillatory shock-capturing schemes," Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 77, No. 2, 439-471, 1988.
19. Shu, C. W. and S. Osher, "Efficient implementation of essentially non-oscillatory shock-capturing schemes II," Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 83, No. 1, 32-78, 1989.
20. LeVeque, R. J., Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws, Birkhauser Verlag, 1992.
21. Gupta, I. J. and W. D. Burnside, "A physical optics correction for backscattering from curved surfaces," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 35, No. 5, 553-561, 1987.
22. Balanis, C. A., Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1989.