Vol. 65
Latest Volume
All Volumes
PIERB 104 [2024] PIERB 103 [2023] PIERB 102 [2023] PIERB 101 [2023] PIERB 100 [2023] PIERB 99 [2023] PIERB 98 [2023] PIERB 97 [2022] PIERB 96 [2022] PIERB 95 [2022] PIERB 94 [2021] PIERB 93 [2021] PIERB 92 [2021] PIERB 91 [2021] PIERB 90 [2021] PIERB 89 [2020] PIERB 88 [2020] PIERB 87 [2020] PIERB 86 [2020] PIERB 85 [2019] PIERB 84 [2019] PIERB 83 [2019] PIERB 82 [2018] PIERB 81 [2018] PIERB 80 [2018] PIERB 79 [2017] PIERB 78 [2017] PIERB 77 [2017] PIERB 76 [2017] PIERB 75 [2017] PIERB 74 [2017] PIERB 73 [2017] PIERB 72 [2017] PIERB 71 [2016] PIERB 70 [2016] PIERB 69 [2016] PIERB 68 [2016] PIERB 67 [2016] PIERB 66 [2016] PIERB 65 [2016] PIERB 64 [2015] PIERB 63 [2015] PIERB 62 [2015] PIERB 61 [2014] PIERB 60 [2014] PIERB 59 [2014] PIERB 58 [2014] PIERB 57 [2014] PIERB 56 [2013] PIERB 55 [2013] PIERB 54 [2013] PIERB 53 [2013] PIERB 52 [2013] PIERB 51 [2013] PIERB 50 [2013] PIERB 49 [2013] PIERB 48 [2013] PIERB 47 [2013] PIERB 46 [2013] PIERB 45 [2012] PIERB 44 [2012] PIERB 43 [2012] PIERB 42 [2012] PIERB 41 [2012] PIERB 40 [2012] PIERB 39 [2012] PIERB 38 [2012] PIERB 37 [2012] PIERB 36 [2012] PIERB 35 [2011] PIERB 34 [2011] PIERB 33 [2011] PIERB 32 [2011] PIERB 31 [2011] PIERB 30 [2011] PIERB 29 [2011] PIERB 28 [2011] PIERB 27 [2011] PIERB 26 [2010] PIERB 25 [2010] PIERB 24 [2010] PIERB 23 [2010] PIERB 22 [2010] PIERB 21 [2010] PIERB 20 [2010] PIERB 19 [2010] PIERB 18 [2009] PIERB 17 [2009] PIERB 16 [2009] PIERB 15 [2009] PIERB 14 [2009] PIERB 13 [2009] PIERB 12 [2009] PIERB 11 [2009] PIERB 10 [2008] PIERB 9 [2008] PIERB 8 [2008] PIERB 7 [2008] PIERB 6 [2008] PIERB 5 [2008] PIERB 4 [2008] PIERB 3 [2008] PIERB 2 [2008] PIERB 1 [2008]
Optimized Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors to Maximize Absorptance
Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 65, 81-108, 2016
Dispersion characteristics of four types of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors, nano-cavity-array- (NCA-), nano-cavity-deflector-array- (NCDA-), nano-cavity-double-deflector-array- (NCDDA-) and nano-cavity-trench-array- (NCTA-) integrated (I-A-SNSPDs) devices was optimized in three periodicity intervals commensurate with half-, three-quarter- and one SPP wavelength. The optimal con gurations capable of maximizing NbN absorptance correspond to periodicity-dependent tilting in S-orientation (90˚ azimuthal orientation). In NCAI-A-SNSPDs absorptance maxima are reached at the plasmonic Brewster angle (PBA) due to light tunneling. The absorptance maximum is attained in a wide plasmonic-pass-band in NCDAI1/2*λ-A, inside a flat-plasmonic-pass-band in NCDAI3/4*λ-A and inside a narrow plasmonic-band in NCDAIλ-A. In NCDDAI1/2*λ-A bands of strongly coupled cavity and plasmonic modes cross, in NCDDAI3/4*λ-A an inverted-plasmonic-band-gap develops, while in NCDDAIλ-A a narrow plasmonic-pass-band appears inside an inverted-minigap. The absorptance maximum is achieved in NCTAI1/2*λ-A inside a plasmonic-pass-band, in NCTAI3/4*λ-A at inverted-plasmonic-band-gap center, while in NCTAIλ-A inside an inverted-minigap. The highest 95.05% absorptance is attained at perpendicular incidence onto NCTAIλ-A. Quarter-wavelength type cavity modes contribute to the near-field enhancement around NbN segments except in NCDAIλ-A and NCDDAI3/4*λ-A. The polarization contrast is moderate in NCAIA-SNSPDs (~102). NCDAI- and NCDDAI-A-SNSPDs make possible to attain considerably large polarization contrast (~102-103 and ~103~104), while NCTAI-A-SNSPDs exhibit a weak polarization selectivity (~10-102).
Maria Csete, Gabor Szekeres, Andras Szenes, Balazs Banhelyi, Tibor Csendes, and Gabor Szabo, "Optimized Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors to Maximize Absorptance," Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 65, 81-108, 2016.

1. Hadfield, R. H., J. L. Habif, J. Schlafer, R. E. Schwall, and S. W. Nam, "Quantum key distribution at with twin superconducting single-photon detectors," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 89, 241129, 2006.

2. Takesue, H., S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting photon-detectors," Nature Photonics, Vol. 1, 343, 2007.

3. Honjo, T., S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Long-distance etanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber," Optics Express, Vol. 16, 19118, 2008.

4. Hadfield, R. H., "Single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications," Nature Photonics, Vol. 3, 696, 2009.

5. Eisaman, M. D., J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, "Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 82, 071101, 2011.

6. Natarajan, C. M., M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, "Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: Physics and applications," Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 25, 063001, 2012.

7. Bonneau, D., M. Lobino, P. Jiang, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. Obrien, "Fast path and polarization manipulation of telecom wavelength single photons in lithium niobate waveguide devices," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, 053601, 2012.

8. Najafi, F., J. Mower, N. C. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, X. Hu, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, "On-chip detection of non-classical light by scalable integration of integration of single-photon detectors," Nature Communications, Vol. 6, 5873, 2014.

9. Kerman, A. J., E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. Goltsman, and B. Voronov, "Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 88, 111116, 2006.

10. Rosfjord, K. M., J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Goltsman, and K. K. Berggren, "Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating," Optics Express, Vol. 14, 527, 2006.

11. Robinson, B. S., A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Barron, D. O. Caplan, M. L. Stevens, J. J. Carney, S. A. Hamilton, J. K. W. Yang, and K. K. Berggren, "781 Mbit/s photon-counting optical communications using a superconducting nanowire detector," Optics Letters, Vol. 31/4, 444, 2006.

12. Robinson, B. S., A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, B. Voronov, G. Gol'tsman, and K. K. Berggren, "Multi-element superconducting nanowire single-photon detector," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 17, 279, 2007.

13. Anant, V., A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, "Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors," Optics Express, Vol. 16, 10750, 2008.

14. Dorenbos, S. N., E. M. Reiger, N. Akopian, U. Perinetti, V. Zwiller, T. Zijlstra, and T. M. Klapwijk, "Low noise superconducting single photon detectors on silicon," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 93, 161102, 2008.

15. Divochiy, A., F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, "Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths," Nature Photonics, Vol. 2, 302, 2008.

16. Dauler, E. A., A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, "Photon-number resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors," Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 56, 364, 2009.

17. Marsili, F., D. Bitauld, A. Fiore, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Divochiy, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, and G. Goltsman, "Superconducting parallel nanowire detector with photon number resolving functionality," Journal of Modern Optics, Vol. 56, 334, 2009.

18. Miki, S., M. Takeda, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, "Compactly packaged superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with an optical cavity for multichannel system," Optics Express, Vol. 17, 23557, 2009.

19. Baek, B., J. A. Stern, and S. W. Nam, "Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in an optical cavity for front-side illumination," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, 191110, 2009.

20. Bitauld, D., F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, "Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity," Nano Letters, Vol. 10, 2977, 2010.

21. Gaggero, A., S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, "Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors and GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 97, 151108, 2009.

22. Marsili, F., F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, "Single-photon detectors based on ultra-narrow superconducting nanowires," Nano Letters, Vol. 11, 2048, 2011.

23. Csete, M., Á. Sipos, F. Najafi, X. Hu, and K. K. Berggren, "Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors," Applied Optics, Vol. 50/31, 5949, 2011.

24. Hu, X., E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, "Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors integrated with optical nano-antennae," Optics Express, Vol. 19, 17, 2011.

25. Csete, M., Á. Sipos, F. Najafi, and K. K. Berggren, "Optimized polar-azimuthal orientations for polarized light illumination of different superconducting nanowire single-photon detector designs," Journal of Nanophotonics, Vol. 6/1, 063523, 2012.

26. Csete, M., A. Szalai, Á. Sipos, and G. Szabó, "Impact of polar-azimuthal illumination angles on efficiency of nano-cavity-array integrated single-photon detectors," Optics Express, Vol. 20/15, 17065, 2012.

27. Akhlaghi, M. K., H. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, M. Loncar, and A. H. Majedi, "Reduced dark counts in optimized geometries for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors," Optics Express, Vol. 20/21, 23610, 2012.

28. Verma, V. B., F. Marsili, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, "A three-dimensional, polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetector," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, 251114, 2012.

29. Marsili, F., V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, "Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency," Nature Photonics, Vol. 7, 210, 2013.

30. Eftekharian, A., H. Atikian, and A. H. Majedi, "Plasmonic superconducting nanowire single photon detector," Optics Express, Vol. 21/3, 3043, 2013.

31. Csete, M., Á. Sipos, A. Szalai, F. Najafi, G. Szabó, and K. K. Berggren, "Improvement of infrared single-photon detectors absorptance by integrated plasmonic structures," Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, 2406, 2013.

32. Heath, R. M., M. G. Tanner, T. D. Drysdale, S. Miki, V. Giannini, S. A. Maier, and R. H. Hadfield, "Nano-antenna enhancement for telecom-wavelength superconducting single photon detectors," Nano Letters, Vol. 15/2, 819, 2014.

33. Csete, M., G. Szekeres, A. Szenes, A. Szalai, and G. Szabó, "Plasmonic structure integrated single-photon detector configurations to improve absorptance and polarization contrast," Sensors, Vol. 15, No. 2, 3513, 2015.

34. Bennett, C. and G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, 175-179, 1984.

35. Pryde, G. J., J. L. Obrien, A. G. White, S. D. Bartlett, and T. C. Ralph, "Measuring a photonic qubit without destroying it," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 92, 190402, 2004.

36. Knill, E., R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, "A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics," Nature, Vol. 409, 46, 2001.

37. Ladd, T. D., F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. Obrien, "Quantum computers," Nature, Vol. 464, 45, 2010.

38. Sánchez-Gil, J. A., "Surface defect scattering of surface plasmon polaritons: Mirrors and light emitters," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 73/24, 3509, 1998.

39. Csendes, T., L. Pál, J. O. H. Sendín, and J. R. Banga, "The GLOBAL optimization method revisited," Optimization Letters, Vol. 2, 445, 2008.

40. Bánhelyi, B., T. Csendes, B.M. Garay, and L. Hatvani, "A computer-assisted proof for Sigma_3-chaos in the forced damped pendulum equation," SIAM Journal on Applied Dinamical Systems, Vol. 7, 843, 2008.

41. Bánhelyi, B., T. Csendes, T. Krisztin, and A. Neumaier, "Global attractivity of the zero solution for Wright's equation," SIAM Journal on Applied Dinamical Systems, Vol. 13, 537, 2014.

42. Al, A., G. Daguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. J. Bloemer, "Plasmonic Brewster angle: Broadband extraordinary transmission though optical gratings," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 106, 123902, 2011.

43. Aközbek, N., N. Mattiucci, D. de Ceglia, R. Trimm, A. Al, G. Daguanno, M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, and M. J. Bloemer, "Experimental demonstration of plasmonic Brewster angle extraordinary transmission through extreme subwavelength slit arrays in the microwave," Physical Review B, Vol. 85, 205430, 2012.

44. Argyropoulos, C., G. Daguanno, N. Mattiucci, N. Akozbek, M. J. Bloemer, and A. Al, "Matching and funneling light at the plasmonic Brewster angle," Physical Review B, Vol. 85, 024304, 2012.

45. Sobnack, M. B., W. C. Tan, N. P. Wanstall, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Stationary surface plasmons on a zero-order metal grating," Physical Review Letters, Vol. 80/25, 5667, 1998.

46. Tan, W.-C., T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, and N. P. Wanstall, "Flat surface-plasmon-polariton bands and resonant optical absorption on short-pitch metal gratings," Physical Review B, Vol. 59/19, 12661, 1999.

47. Hooper, I. R. and J. R. Sambles, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings," Physical Review B, Vol. 65, 165432, 2002.

48. Hooper, I. R. and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polaritons on narrow-ridged short-pitch metal gratings," Physical Review B, Vol. 66, 205408, 2002.

49. Chen, Y. J., E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, and J. M. Ballantyne, "Surface plasmon on gratings: Coupling in the minigap regions," Solid State Communications, Vol. 46/2, 95, 1983.

50. Garcia-Vidal, F. J., J. Sanchez-Dehesa, A. Dechelette, E. Bustarret, T. Lopez-Rios, T. Fournier, and B. Pannetier, "Localized surface plasmons in lamellar metallic gratings," Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 17/11, 2191, 1999.

51. Marquier, F., J.- J. Greffet, S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J. L. Pelouard, "Resonant transmission through a metallic film due to coupled modes," Optics Express, Vol. 13/1, 70, 2004.

52. de Ceglia, D., M. A. Vincenti, M. Scalora, N. Akozbek, and M. J. Bloemer, "Plasmonic band edge effects on the transmission properties of metal gratings," AIP Advances, Vol. 1, 032151, 2011.

53. Collin, S., "Nanostructure arrays in free-space: Optical properties and applications," Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 77, 126402, 2014.

54. Wood, R. W., "Anomalous diffraction gratings," Physical Review, Vol. 15, 928, 1935.

55. Hessel, A. and A. A. Oliner, "A new theory of Wood's anomalies on optical gratings," Applied Optics, Vol. 4/10, 1275-1297, 1965.

56. Sarrazin, M., J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role ofWood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Physical Review B, Vol. 67, 085415, 2003.

57. Philpot, M. R. and J. D. Swalen, "Exciton surface polaritons on organic crystals," The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 69, No. 6, 2912, 1978.

58. Welford, K. R., "Surface plasmon-polaritons," IOP Short Meeting Series, Vol. 9, 25, 1988.

59. Yang, F., J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Physical Review B, Vol. 44, 5855, 1991.

60. Sarrazin, M. and J.-P. Vigneron, "Light transmission assisted by Brewster-Zennek modes in chromium films carrying a subwavelength hole array," Physical Review, Vol. 71, 075404, 2005.

61. Weiner, J., "The physics of light transmission through subwavelength apertures and aperture arrays," Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 72, 064401, 2009.

62. Torma, P. and W. L. Barnes, "Strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and emitters: A review," Reports on Progress in Physics, Vol. 78, 013901, 2015.

63. Fan, R.-H., R.-W. Peng, X.-R. Huang, J. Li, Y. Liu, Q. Hu, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves," Advanced Materials, Vol. 24, 1980, 2012.

64. Sakat, E., G. Vincent, P. Ghenuche, N. Bardou, C. Dupuis, S. Collin, F. Pardo, R. Hadar, and J.-L. Pelouard, "Free-standing guided-mode resonance band-pass filters: From 1D to 2D structures," Optics Express, Vol. 20/12, 13082, 2012.

65. Shen, H. and B. Maes, "Enhanced optical transmission through tapered metallic gratings," Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, 241104, 2012.

66. Barbara, A., P. Quémerais, E. Bustarret, T. López-Rios, and T. Fournier, "Electromagnetic resonances of subwavelength rectangular metallic gratings," The European Physical Journal D, Vol. 23, 143, 2003.

67. Tan, W.-C., J. R. Sambles, and T. W. Preist, "Double-period zero-order metal gratings as effective selective absorbers," Physical Review B, Vol. 61/19, 13177, 2000.

68. Chan, H. B., Z. Marcet, Kwangje Woo, D. B. Tanner, D. W. Carr, J. E. Bower, R. A. Cirelli, E. Ferry, F. Klemens, J. Miner, C. S. Pai, and J. A. Taylor, "Optical transmission through double-layer metallic subwavelength slit arrays," Optics Letters, Vol. 31/4, 516, 2006.

69. Cheng, C., J. Chen, D.-J. Shi, Q.-Y. Wu, F.-F. Ren, J. Xu, Y.-X. Fan, J. Ding, and H.-T. Wang, "Physical mechanism of extraordinary electromagnetic transmission in dual-metallic grating structures," Physics Review B, Vol. 78, 075406, 2008.

70. Barbara, A., S. Collin, Ch. Sauvan, J. Le Perchec, C. Maxime, J.-L. Pelouard, and P. Quémerais, "Plasmon dispersion diagram and localization effects in a three-cavity commensurate grating," Optics Express, Vol. 18/14, 14913, 2010.

71. Skigin, D. C. and R. A. Depine, "Narrow gaps of transmission through metallic structured gratings with subwavelength slits," Physics Review E, Vol. 74, 046606, 2006.

72. Csendes, T., B. M. Garay, and B. Bánhelyi, "A verified optimization technique to locate chaotic regions of a Hénon system," Journal of Global Optimization, Vol. 35, 145, 2006.