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2023-02-02
PIER C
Vol. 129, 173-186, 2023
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Numerical and Measurement Based Modeling of a MIM Capacitor in a 0.25 um SiGe -C BiCMOS Process
Huseyin Aniktar Huseyin Serif Savci
This study presents the generation of a scalable model based on measurement aided numerical calculations for MiMCap (Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitor) structures with a 0.25 µm SiGe-C BiCMOS technology. Various MiM capacitor structures with several different area and peripheral sizes are fabricated in an in-house developed BiCMOS process. A set of fix-size models and a generic scalable model are developed based on numerical EM calculations. The validity of the constructed model is verified with the measurement results. The model includes the breakdown voltage ratings which are also extracted through the measurements. The model, EM simulations and measurement results are in good agreement.
Numerical and Measurement Based Modeling of a MIM Capacitor in a 0.25 um SiGe-C BiCMOS Process
2023-01-30
PIER C
Vol. 129, 157-172, 2023
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A New Clutter Elimination and Downrange Correction Algorithm for through Wall Radar Detection
Dheyaa T. Al-Zuhairi Abbas Salman Hameed Sura F. Yousif
Through wall radar imaging and detection applications are growing significantly. However, the target response is usually accompanied with a strong clutter which veils the target detection. In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for clutter reduction and target downrange correction in through wall monostatic radar imaging. The proposed algorithm arranges the received radar signals in a matrix and then splits this matrix to frames. The frames are individually processed and filtered in frequency domain, then they are returned to time domain and merged together in a new matrix. The final step is enhancing the target response via a matched filter. The proposed algorithm performance is evaluated by target to clutter ratio (TCR), signal to clutter ratio (SCR), and downrange target position error (DTPE) in three different simulated scenarios. The simulation results exhibit the proposed algorithm capability in both removing the clutter and adjusting the target downrange to be with an evident appearance and accurate position. In the most complicated scenario which consists of two separated walls and a target behind them, using the proposed algorithm improves the performance in terms of TCR, SCR and DTPE by 49.7 dB, 70.7 dB, and, 7.6% respectively.
A New Clutter Elimination and Downrange Correction Algorithm for Through Wall Radar Detection
2023-01-30
PIER C
Vol. 129, 143-155, 2023
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Ultra-Wideband Flexible Wearable Antenna with Notch Characteristics for WLAN Applications
Amit Roy Ashim Kumar Biswas Arnab Nandi Banani Basu
This paper presents a narrow notch band, flexible, wearable ultra-wideband antenna built on a jeans substrate. Prior to designing the antenna, the dielectric properties of the jeans substrate are experimentally investigated. The effects of antenna shape and substrate loss characteristics on resonant performances are discussed with reference to the notch characteristics. The proposed antenna is shaped like a cumulative rugged element, with two identical legs. The investigation of the designed antenna shows the operating frequency ranges (S11 ≤ -10 dB) in 2.4-4.2 GHz and 5.86-10.7 GHz bands with notch properties in telemetry/mobile communications (4.4-4.99 GHz) and WLAN (5.15-5.85 GHz) band. Additionally, the prototype is investigated under on-body conditions. Measured results are also included for the validation of the designed prototype.
Ultra-wideband Flexible Wearable Antenna with Notch Characteristics for WLAN Applications
2023-01-29
PIER C
Vol. 129, 127-141, 2023
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Design and Optimization of a Reverse Salient Pole Flux Controlled Permanent Magnet Motor
Xiping Liu Wenrui Wang Siting Zhu Yun Gao Jingya Fu
This paper presents a novel reverse salient pole flux controllable permanent magnet (RSP-FCPM) motor topology, and the motor rotor is reasonably designed to have reverse salient pole characteristics and flux controllable characteristics. After selecting the design variables for the RSP-FCPM motor using sensitivity analysis, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied for multi-objective optimization. The optimized RSP-FCPM motor is simulated and compared, and the results show that the optimal RSP-FCPM motor has better flux weakening capability, wider speed range, and constant power output area. it can solve the problem of difficult flux changes of the conventional interior permanent magnet motor, and other electromagnetic performances are also more advantageous. To confirm the reliability of the rotor structure during operation, a stress analysis of the rotor is performed, and the results show that the rotor structure can fully withstand high-speed and high-temperature conditions and can operate safely and stably. It also has more advantages in noise performance, which has great prospects for application in the field of electric vehicles.
Design and Optimization of a Reverse Salient Pole Flux Controlled Permanent Magnet Motor
2023-01-29
PIER C
Vol. 129, 115-126, 2023
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Design and Experimental Verification of Variable Flux Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine Using Time-Stepping Finite Element Method
Yang Zhang Jiming Luo Mingming Huang Quanzhen Huang Duane Decker
A novel variable flux permanent magnet vernier machine (VFPMVM) is proposed by introducing the concept of hybrid excitation, and its flux modulation poles (FMPs) and excitation winding are emplaced in stator teeth and the adjacent FMPs, respectively. It can offer several merits, such as wide speed range operation through the processing of flux-enhancing and flux-weakening without increasing machine bulk, as well as the numbers of stator slot and rotor pole. Moreover, as one sort of flux modulation machine based on magnetic field modulation effect, VFPMVM features low speed, large torque, simpler mechanical structure and better utilization of PM materials than traditional flux modulation machines. The working principle of proposed machine is studied, and basic electromagnetic characteristics are calculated by finite element method, including no-load magnetic flux linkage, no-load back electromotive force, cogging torque, and output torque. In addition, the processes of flux-enhancing and flux-weakening are analyzed. Finally, one prototype with one kilowatt was built, and its static characteristics were tested. The results show that the proposed VFPMVM has the merits of high torque density, small cogging torque, and wide speed range, which is a promising candidate for electric vehicle direct drive field.
Design and Experimental Verification of Variable Flux Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine Using Time-stepping Finite Element Method
2023-01-29
PIER C
Vol. 129, 99-113, 2023
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Systematic Flexible Antenna Performance Study of V-Folding Percentage Influence
Kishore Ajay Kumar Ayyala Atul Thakur Sahbi Baccar Nour Mohammad Murad Mani S. Prasad Preeti Thakur Glauco Fontgalland Yong Zhou Blaise Ravelo
In wireless technology, microstrip patch antennas are often used in communication systems with various designs. However, the effect of geometrically folded antennas on wireless communication performance is unclear. To address this problem, an in-depth study of the flexible antenna parameters was performed through V-folding analysis. A systematic and complete analysis of the percentage of folding in patch antennas was performed. The folding of patch antennas is expected to become mandatory because patch antennas are integrated and molded according to specified object shapes. The designed antenna was operated at 0.1-5.0 GHz to investigate the folding performance in the frequency range of 1.00-3.78 GHz used in many wireless applications, such as the GPS, GSM, and LTE standards. A promising operating frequency for flat (unfold) antennas is 1.42 GHz with an achieved multiband bandwidth of 31.6 MHz, which shifted according to the folding angle but with good performance. The results of this study can be used to predict the performance of an antenna when it is placed on a product of any shape, according to the designed object pattern.
Systematic Flexible Antenna Performance Study of V-folding Percentage Influence
2023-01-28
PIER C
Vol. 129, 89-98, 2023
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A Compact Novel Lamp Slotted WLAN Band Notched UWB Antenna Integrated with Ku Band
Venkata Lakshmi Narayana Phani Ponnapalli Shanumugam Karthikeyan Jammula Lakshmi Narayana Venkata Naga Koteswara Rao Devana
A compact novel lamp slotted upper WLAN band rejected ultrawideband (UWB) radiator integrated with Ku and partial K bands is reported. The intended radiator consists of a novel lamp slotted patch structure with a 50 Ω tapered microstrip feed line along with a novel semicircular defected ground structure (SCS-DGS). The size of the suggested radiator is 16×22 mm2 with an impedance bandwidth ranging from 3.63 to 21.94 GHz to cover UWB integrated with Ku and partial K bands, and a novel via notched element is utilized to notch the upper WLAN band from 5.31 to 6.05 GHz. The proposed antenna has stable radiation patterns, consistent gain, and a peak radiation efficiency of 92.15% except for the notched band which mak it suitable for upper WLAN band notched UWB wireless communication applications.
A Compact Novel Lamp Slotted WLAN Band Notched UWB Antenna Integrated with Ku Band
2023-01-26
PIER C
Vol. 129, 73-87, 2023
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Design and Development of Mathematical Equivalent Circuit Model of Broadband Circularly Polarized Semi-Annular Ring Shaped Monopole Antenna
Priya Ranjan Meher Sanjeev Kumar Mishra
This article presents a broadband circularly polarized (CP) semi-annular ring-shaped printed monopole antenna for wireless applications. A semi-annular monopole with symmetric partial ground plane is designed to achieve the impedance bandwidth with a behaviour of linearly polarized (LP) radiation wave. To achieve the CP behaviour with broadband axial ratio (AR) bandwidth, an asymmetric stair shaped partial ground plane is incorporated in the semi-annular ring-shaped monopole structure. Different analysis of CP radiation is presented by analysing the surface current distribution, electric field distribution and also its mathematical modelling using CST-MWS solver. Moreover, an equivalent circuit model of the proposed monopole antenna is developed using Foster canonical forms. The measured -10 dB impedance bandwidth and 3-dB AR bandwidth are 8.78 GHz [3.22-12.0 GHz] and 2.21 GHz [7.58-9.79 GHz] respectively. The peak realized gain and antenna efficiency are 4.32 dB at 7.61 GHz and 82% at 4.83 GHz respectively. The proposed antenna can be suitable for C-band (4-8 GHz) and X-band (8-12 GHz) applications.
Design and Development of Mathematical Equivalent Circuit Model of Broadband Circularly Polarized Semi-annular Ring Shaped Monopole Antenna
2023-01-26
PIER C
Vol. 129, 63-72, 2023
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Microstrip Fed Pi-Slot Patch Antenna with T-Slot DGS for UWB Applications
Shaik Jabeen Gumireddy Hemalatha
An Ultra-wideband Microstrip fed patch antenna with a defective ground surface is presented in this paper. The above-mentioned antenna comprises a T-slot in the ground plane and a Pi-slot in a rectangular patch. The proposed antenna is developed and modeled using the High-Frequency Structure Simulation tool on an RTDuroid 5880 substrate with a thickness of 1.6 mm and a dielectric constant of 2.2. A T-shaped defect is carved in the ground plane to enhance the antenna's radiation properties, gain, and bandwidth. A conventional Pi-slotted patch antenna operating at 9.74 GHz with a return loss of 19.7 dB is designed, followed by an ultra-wideband antenna embedded with a T-slot in the partial ground surface operating from 7.15 GHz to 10.925 GHz with an impedance bandwidth (S11 < −10 dB) of 3.775 GHz. It showcases exceptional characteristics with a peak gain of 6.99 dBi at 8.95 GHz. A satisfactory agreement is found between the experimental data and simulation results. The proposed Pi-slot patch antenna with the defective ground has applications in radar, satellite, weather monitoring, and vehicle speed detection for law enforcement.
MICROSTRIP FED PI-SLOT PATCH ANTENNA WITH T-SLOT DGS FOR UWB APPLICATIONS
2023-01-22
PIER C
Vol. 129, 51-61, 2023
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Pattern Synthesis of a Resonant Slot on a Broad Wall of the Rectangular Waveguide Using Amplitude and Phase Control
Mahmoud Sharafi Masouleh Amin Kargar Behbahani Masoud Sharafi Masouleh Maryam Sajedi Malek Adjouadi
A design technique to develop the desired pattern with uniform spacing between elements for a resonant linear slot array on the broad wall of a rectangular waveguide is discussed in this study. First, linear array pattern synthesis is used to achieve the amplitude and phase of the array element. Then both radiation pattern synthesis and the array input impedance matching are achieved using the least-squares method. In addition, the error function is created by combining the three terms of impedance matching, array pattern synthesis, and slot design equations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and the conjugate gradient (CG) technique are used to minimize the acquired error function. The utilized approach results in precise pattern synthesis, good impedance matching, development of appropriate design equations, and power loss minimization. The computing needs were also reduced using the suggested antenna design. The approach is particularly beneficial since it integrates slot parameter dimensions and impedance matching with array pattern synthesis, resulting in a faster and more accurate design. Full-wave simulation Software HFSS was utilized to validate the suggested design method. Moreover, the measurements were conducted on a prototype designed to validate the simulation's accuracy and the designed antenna practicality, and excellent agreements between theoretical predictions and simulation results were achieved.
Pattern Synthesis of a Resonant Slot on a Broad Wall of the Rectangular Waveguide Using Amplitude and Phase Control
2023-01-22
PIER C
Vol. 129, 35-50, 2023
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Beam-Steering for Narrow Beamwidth 120 GHz Antenna Array Using Deep Learning for Radar Application
Ahmed Mohamed Montaser
The narrow beam-width 120 GHz industry, scientific, and medical band compact substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) driven antenna's design and characterization are discussed in this study. A low-cost fabrication is ensured by the employment of a single RO4350B substrate layer with SIW feeding. A transition from SIW to a rectangular waveguide is made for measuring purposes. The radiation pattern has been measured. By determining the right feeding phases for the 20 elements, a Deep Neural Network (DNN) is used to softly compute the beam steering. The weighted hybrid Modified Gravitational Search Algorithm (MGSA) - Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) approach and neural network with back-propagation technique are utilized to beam-steer by anticipating the appropriate feeding phases of the antenna array elements. To evaluate the effectiveness of the approaches, a number of sample instances are given that beam-steer the pattern in a variety of directions. In addition to allowing for the establishment of crucial analytical equations for the synthesis of antenna arrays, the neural network synthesis method also offers a great deal of flexibility between the system parameters in input and output, which makes the synthesis possible due to the explicit relationship given by them. The conventional technique of the phased array is compared with our DNN model for implementing beam steering.
Beam-steering for Narrow Beamwidth 120 GHz Antenna Array Using Deep Learning for Radar Application
2023-01-22
PIER C
Vol. 129, 17-34, 2023
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Low SAR Dual-Band Circularly Polarized Wearable RFID Antenna Using FSS Reflector with Reduced EMI
Shivani Sharma Malay Ranjan Tripathy Ajay Kumar Sharma
A circularly polarized dual band wearable antenna using frequency selective surface backed reflector for radio frequency identification reader resonating at global ultra-high frequency band (860-960 MHz) & ISM band (2.4 GHz) is proposed in this work. For circular polarization, the corner is truncated at the opposite end of a square patch with periodic slots over the patch for getting an orthogonal electric field in both the X & Y axis direction. Another truncated inner square slot patch miniaturizes the antenna further for stable frequency response. Finally, the periodic frequency selective surface-based reflector is used for gain enhancement & crosstalk reduction. The simulated & measured results for antenna over human body are plotted against the required bandwidth. The return loss and maximum radiated gains of -31 dB and 8.30 dB are achieved at a resonating frequency of 2.4 GHz with the reading range and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of 6.98 m and 0.77 watt/kg respectively. At 865 MHz the return loss & maximum radiated gain is -23 dB & 5.31 dB with the reading range & SAR of 5.21 m & 0.65 watt/kg respectively. The proposed UHF RFID antenna is circularly polarized with the axial ratio bandwidth less than 3 dB with approximately 15% (860-965 MHz & 2.4-2.45 GHz) range. The designed wearable antenna provides better isolation when FSS is incorporated while enhancing the gain for longer read range. The FSS reflector below the antenna reduces the SAR for on-body wearable applications. This RFID antenna can be used efficiently for WBAN applications as a portable RFID reader wearable antenna for remote sensing & real time monitoring.
Low SAR Dual-band Circularly Polarized Wearable RFID Antenna Using FSS Reflector with Reduced EMI
2023-01-20
PIER C
Vol. 129, 1-15, 2023
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A Radar Waveform Design of McPc Method for Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression via Fractional Fourier Transform
Ji Li Junjie Zhou Wei Wang Min Liu
Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming (ISRJ) is an electronic countermeasure against radar echo signals that generates many false targets to mask the real target echoes, which seriously affects radar target detection performance. Most of the ISRJ suppression methods require accurate estimation of the signal parameters, and the estimation methods are complex. Based on the characteristics of discontinuous ISRJ sampling and orthogonality between multi-carrier phase coding (MCPC) signal's subcarriers, we propose a method for ISRJ identification and suppression based on an improved MCPC signal. By analyzing the pulse compression of the echo, we found that different types of intermittent sampling interference have different peaks after pulse compression. Based on this feature, we introduce Fractional Fourier Transform to filter out interference. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the method can effectively suppress the three classical ISRJ interferences. The method suppresses ISRJ during echo processing without any parameter estimation for real scenes and has stronger robustness than other existing schemes.
A Radar Waveform Design of MCPC Method for Interrupted Sampling Repeater Jamming Suppression via Fractional Fourier Transform