A Novel Tri-Band Hexagonal Microstrip Patch Antenna Using Modified Sierpinski Fractal for Vehicular Communication
Sekhar Ranjan Bhadra Chaudhuri
The present paper analyses and documents the merits of incorporating fractal design in microstrip antenna intended to be mounted on and integrated into the design of smart vehicles. A novel design is proposed for a compact tri-band hexagonal microstrip antenna to be integrated with the body of a smart vehicle for short range communication purpose in an Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This antenna can be used at 1.575 GHz of GPS L1 band for vehicle to roadside communication, at 3.71 GHz of mobile WiMAX band (IEEE 802.16e-2005) for blind spot detection and at 5.9 GHz of DSRC band (IEEE 802.11p) for vehicle to vehicle communication. At 3.71 GHz, the two major lobes of the antenna radiation beam, tilted by 35° on both sides from its broadside direction, help the vehicle to detect blind spots efficiently. The largest dimension of the proposed antenna corresponds to the lowest resonating frequency, 1.575 GHz. Compared to the conventional hexagonal patch, the modified Sierpinski fractal proposed herein reduces the overall area, at 1.575 GHz, by 75%, with 5.2 dBi gain. In comparison with other popular fractals, the proposed fractal structure achieves demonstrably better antenna miniaturization. When the antenna is mounted on the vehicle, considered an electromagnetically larger object, the simulated and on-vehicle experimental results show antenna gains of more than 5.5 dBi at 1.575 GHz, 8 dBi at 3.71 GHz and 9 dBi at 5.9 GHz in the desired direction with negligible amount of electromagnetic interference inside the car.