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2024-06-13
PIER M
Vol. 127, 103-111, 2024
download: 17
Closely Spaced Miniaturized MIMO Antenna for X and Ku Band Applications Using Metamaterial
Jyothsna Undrakonda and Ratna Kumari Upadhyayula
The design of a low profile rectangular patch multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna is proposed. The antenna incorporates a novel metamaterial-based structure and utilizes a three single split ring resonators based tank circuit to achieve high isolation. A novel metastructure covers C, X, and Ku bands. The antenna structure is made up three single split ring resonators (SRRs) embedded on the bottom of the antenna, situated between the radiating patches. The dimensions of the fabricated antenna are 10×15×1.6 mm3 on an FR4 epoxy substrate. The antenna operates within the frequency range of 10.97 to 18.85 GHz with minimum spacing between antenna elements as 2 mm, covering the X and Ku bands. It is utilized in radar and satellite applications. The metastructure on the back of the antenna enhances isolation by more than 16 dB in the operating band, with a maximum of -31.28 dB at 17.88 GHz. The antenna's radiation efficiency and gain are increased by 80% and 5.54 dB at a frequency of 16.37 GHz respectively. The antenna exhibits good diversity performance parameters, such as an ECC below 0.1 and a DG of 9.98 dB, in addition to desirable radiation characteristics. The proposed antenna exhibits the features that make it highly suitable for advanced technologies.
Closely Spaced Miniaturized MIMO Antenna for X and Ku Band Applications Using Metamaterial
2024-06-13
PIER M
Vol. 127, 93-101, 2024
download: 40
A Miniaturized Reconfigurable Antenna for Modern Wireless Applications with Broadband and Multi-Band Capabilities
Omaima Benkhadda , Mohamed Saih , Abdelati Reha , Sarosh Ahmad , Kebir Chaji , Harbinder Singh and Ahmed Jamal Abdullah Al-Gburi
A miniaturized frequency reconfigurable antenna, designed with a simple geometric layout on an FR-4 substrate measuring 15 × 21 mm2, offers versatility for various wireless applications is proposed in this paper. By adjusting biasing conditions of integrated PIN diodes, the antenna can operate in three distinct modes: wideband, dual band, and triband configurations. The antenna demonstrates satisfactory gain and presents an omnidirectional radiation pattern. Verification of the antenna's functionality involved building a prototype and subjecting it to testing. The confirmed compatibility of the antenna with modern wireless requirements, including the need for small antennas capable of operating across multiple bands and modes, is substantiated by the close agreement between simulated and measured results.
A Miniaturized Reconfigurable Antenna for Modern Wireless Applications with Broadband and Multi-band Capabilities
2024-06-09
PIER M
Vol. 127, 85-92, 2024
download: 62
A Metamaterial Based Dual-Band UWB Antenna Design for 5G Applications
Jincheng Xue , Guolong Wang , Shuman Li , Zhuopeng Wang and Quanquan Liang
This paper presents the design of a novel ultra-wideband antenna for Internet of Things applications utilizing metamaterials. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide and comprises several key components: two relatively connected co-directional split-ring resonators with an upper feeder, a ground plane featuring a complementary circular resonant slit, and a double C-shaped nested ring situated on the lower surface of the substrate constitutes the electric inductive capacitive (ELC) element. The antenna's overall dimensions are 0.408 × 0.35 × 0.018λ03, enabling it to operate within the dual-band frequencies of 2.79-4.22 GHz (40.8%) and 4.70-5.88 GHz (22.3%). The antenna exhibits a favorable directional pattern across its operating frequency range, with a measured peak gain of approximately 3.93 dBi. This performance makes it suitable for applications in Wi-Fi, 5G communication, IoT, and various other fields requiring reliable wireless connectivity.
A Metamaterial Based Dual-band UWB Antenna Design for 5G Applications
2024-06-05
PIER M
Vol. 127, 75-83, 2024
download: 77
Exploitation of the Spectral Stochastic Finite Element Model for the Evaluation of Surface Defects of the CFRP Composite
Zehor Oudni and Thinhinane Mahmoudi
This article deals with the detection of defects of rectangular geometric shape, in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite material based on non-destructive testing by eddy current (ECT). For this, a stochastic finite element calculation code is developed in a Matlab environment. The main objective is to evaluate the ECT signal of a fault by determining the impedance variation for the two configurations, in the absence and presence of a fault. Additionally, the impact of the direction of the carbon fibers is exploited to evaluate the reliability of the material. The validation of our work is carried out using experimental data from the work of Takagi et al., provided for reference.
Exploitation of the Spectral Stochastic Finite Element Model for the Evaluation of Surface Defects of the CFRP Composite
2024-05-26
PIER M
Vol. 127, 65-73, 2024
download: 105
A New Method for Ship Detection in SAR Image Based on Finsler Information Geometry
Ke Wang , Meng Yang and Feng Cheng
This article introduces a novel ship detection method for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images that leverages the principles of Finsler information geometry. It employs the curvature features of a statistical manifold as a discriminative mechanism to diminish the impact of sea clutter and augment the contrast between a target and its background. The ambiguity of the local microstructure and statistical characteristics is partially resolved by using information theory to select metric definitions and curvature representation of non-European space. This method models sea clutter using the Gamma Distribution Function (GDF), transforming the detection challenge into an anomaly detection framework within the GDF space. This approach establishes a theoretical detection framework rooted in Finsler information geometry by integrating statistical modeling with Finsler geometry. It harnesses the Finsler characteristics of GDF space to extract the curvature feature representations for each GDF. Detection is achieved by applying one-class support vector machines (SVMs) to a matrix of curvature values derived from these representations. The detection algorithm unfolds in two primary phases. Initially, it utilizes a family of probability distributions to capture geometrical information. Subsequently, curved features are employed for target detection. Through rigorous experimentation with real datasets, the method demonstrates enhanced resilience to sea clutter and outperforms existing techniques for analyzing distribution families, validating its effectiveness and robustness.
A New Method for Ship Detection in SAR Image Based on Finsler Information Geometry
2024-05-10
PIER M
Vol. 127, 53-63, 2024
download: 215
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Waveguides and U-Shaped OR Cross-Shaped Resonators
Tarik Touiss , Ilyass El Kadmiri , Younes Errouas and Driss Bria
In this paper, we study one-dimensional (1D) integrated photonic systems composed of waveguides connected to resonators. We explain and discuss the appearance of two unique resonance phenomena: Fano transparency and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). These resonances play a crucial role in optimizing signal filtering in photonic devices. Our study focuses on two geometrical configurations: a cross-shaped arrangement with collocated lateral resonators at the same site, and a U-shaped configuration with resonators positioned at different sites. We use Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) to analyze these configurations, improving existing theoretical models for photonic waveguide systems. Using this method, we can manipulate the geometrical parameters of resonators to fine-tune the transmission properties associated with the Fano and EIT resonances. Our results indicate that symmetrical resonators eliminate Fano resonance in cross-shaped structures, while the introduction of asymmetrical resonators induces their emergence. For U-shaped structures, we demonstrate the presence of Fano and EIT resonances, and show that their manifestation depends on the geometric parameters of the resonators. Our research has two major implications: Firstly, it advances the theoretical knowledge of resonance phenomena in photonic waveguides. Secondly, it provides a methodology for the design of photonic structures with adapted transmission characteristics, opening the way to applications in advanced signal processing technologies.
Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Fano Resonances in Waveguides and U-shaped or Cross-shaped Resonators
2024-05-10
PIER M
Vol. 127, 41-51, 2024
download: 173
Vibration and Noise Analysis of Low-Speed High-Torque Permanent Magnet Motor for Forging Equipment Based on PSO
Huoda Hu , Wendong Zhang and Chaohui Zhao
The vibration and noise of a low-speed high-torque permanent magnet motor with a dovetail magnetic isolation device (DMID) structure is analyzed. The motor structure and the main structural parameters of the DMID are introduced, and the radial electromagnetic force wave of the motor is investigated. The notch width, radius, and position of the inner circle of the DMID are selected as design variables, and the constraint conditions are given. The influence of a single parameter on the radial electromagnetic force wave is discussed. The multi-objective optimization of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to obtain the Pareto relatively optimal solution set that simultaneously satisfies the requirements of low noise, ample output torque, and small torque ripple, and the optimal design scheme is selected. Besides, the harmonic amplitudes of the radial electromagnetic force, motor vibration acceleration, electromagnetic noise, losses, and efficiency are compared and analyzed before and after optimization. Finally, the electromagnetic vibration experiment of a permanent magnet synchronous motor is carried out, and the data shows the feasibility of the above analysis. The results show that the optimal design scheme of the structure parameters of DMID can increase the average output torque, reduce the torque ripple, and effectively reduce the electromagnetic vibration and noise of the motor.
Vibration and Noise Analysis of Low-speed High-torque Permanent Magnet Motor for Forging Equipment Based on PSO
2024-04-24
PIER M
Vol. 127, 31-39, 2024
download: 244
Research on a Current Reconstruction Method of Multi-Core Cable Based on Surface Magnetic Field Measurements
Ruixi Luo , Yuyi Qin , Yifei Zhou , Fuchao Li and Ruihan Wang
The measurement and decoupling of currents in multi-core power cables is a significant concern for power operators and holds immense potential for optimizing the monitoring and control of urban distribution networks. This paper aims to provide a widely applicable method for reconstructing current measurements. The YJLV22-3 * 300 power cable is taken as an example, specifically focusing on the effect of steel armor on the measurement of the magnetic field generated by the current. Sample tests and field experiments are conducted to verify the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux density. Then the inverse problem of calculating current from the magnetic field is discussed. The defects of the existing methods are shown, and a new method for the inverse problem with the measured waveform of the tangential component of the magnetic flux density is proposed. The feasibility of the new method has been verified. The least-squares method is introduced to obtain the generalized inverse of the position coefficient matrix by maximum rank decomposition to extrapolate the conductor current matrix. A query method is proven to efficiently generate this matrix. Finally, the inverse problem is modeled as a stochastic search problem to compare the efficiency and stability of different algorithms, and CAM-ES performs best. The future research direction is oward developing and testing hardware measurement systems.
Research on a Current Reconstruction Method of Multi-core Cable Based on Surface Magnetic Field Measurements
2024-04-21
PIER M
Vol. 127, 23-30, 2024
download: 385
SAR Flexible Antenna Advancements: Highly Conductive Polymer-Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanocomposites
Ahmed Jamal Abdullah Al-Gburi , Mohd Muzafar Ismail , Naba Jasim Mohammed and Thamer A. H. Alghamdi
In the past, copper served as the material for conductive patches in antennas, but its use was limited due to high costs, susceptibility to fading, bulkiness, environmental sensitivity, and manufacturing challenges. The emergence of graphene nanotechnology has positioned graphene as a viable alternative, offering outstanding electrical conductivity, strength, and adaptability. In this investigation, graphene is employed to fabricate conductive silver nanocomposites. The silver-graphene (Ag/GO) sample exhibits an electrical conductivity of approximately 21.386 S/cm as determined by the four-point probe method. The proposed flexible antenna, characterized by four carefully selected cylindrical shapes were used to construct the antenna patch. for enhanced bandwidth, resonates at 2.45 GHz. It achieves amazing performance characteristics, with a high gain of 11.78 dBi and a return loss greater than -20 dB. Safety considerations are addressed by evaluating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). For an input power of 0.5 W, the SAR is calculated to be 1.2 W/kg per 10 g of tissue, affirming the safety of integrating the suggested graphene flexible antenna into flexible devices. In this study, the bending of the antenna was assessed by subjecting the structure to bending at various radii and angles along both the X and Y axes. These findings underscore the promising utility of Ag/GO nanocomposites in the development of flexible antennas for wireless systems.
SAR Flexible Antenna Advancements: Highly Conductive Polymer-graphene Oxide-silver Nanocomposites
2024-04-20
PIER M
Vol. 127, 11-22, 2024
download: 266
Supervised Manifold Learning-Based Polarimetric-Spatial Feature Extraction for PolSAR Image Classification
Hui Fan , Wei Wang , Sinong Quan , Xi He and Jie Deng
In order to improve the classification performance of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) image by synthesizing various polarimetric features, a supervised manifold learning method is proposed in this paper for PolSAR feature extraction and classification. Under the umbrella of tensor algebra, the proposed method characterizes each pixel with a feature tensor by combining the high-dimensional feature information of all the pixels within its local neighborhood. The tensor representation mode integrates the polarimetric information and spatial information, which is beneficial for alleviating the influence of speckle noise. Then, the tensor discriminative locality alignment (TDLA) method is introduced to seek the multilinear transformation from the original polarimetric-spatial feature tensor to the low-dimensional feature. The label information of training samples is utilized during feature transformation and feature mapping; therefore, the discriminability of different classes can be well preserved. Based on the extracted features in the low-dimensional space, the SVM classifier is applied to achieve the final classification result. The experiments implemented on two real PolSAR data sets verify that the proposed method can extract the features with better stability and separability, and obtain superior classification results compared to several state-of-the-art methods.
Supervised Manifold Learning-based Polarimetric-spatial Feature Extraction for PolSAR Image Classification
2024-04-20
PIER M
Vol. 127, 1-10, 2024
download: 328
Flexible Wearable Antenna Based on AMC with Different Materials for Bio-Telemetry Applications
Yara Ashraf Kamel , Hesham Abd Elhady Mohamed , Hala Elsadek and Hadia El-Hennawy
In this work, a low-profile and flexible antenna operating in the ISM (2.4-2.4835) GHz band for bio-telemetry applications is presented. This antenna is designed on two flexible substrate materials: Roger RO3003 with a thickness of 0.254 mm and jeans fabric material with a thickness of 0.7 mm, of an overall foot print of 20 × 30 mm2. The deformation bending of the designed antenna in two different cases is studied. The designed antenna is backed by a 3 × 3 artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) array structure, which resulted in the final design configuration. The antenna is backed by an AMC array structure to achieve a lower specific absorption rate (SAR) as well as high gain when it is mounted on biological tissue. For validation, the antenna is fabricated on two flexible substrate materials and then measured in free space as well as on four different parts of the realistic human (chest, back, arm, and leg) body with and without AMC structure. Furthermore, the SAR is measured on cSAR3D flat. Finally, for reliable communication, the link margin is calculated.
Flexible Wearable Antenna Based on AMC with Different Materials for Bio-telemetry Applications