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2023-11-07
PIER M
Vol. 120, 179-189, 2023
download: 183
A Wideband High-Gain Antenna Loaded with Triangular Ring Metasurface
Ting Wu , Jia-Wei Wang , Mingjun Wang and Kai Zhang
A broadband high gain antenna based on metasurface is proposed in this paper. The antenna consists of two layers, the lower layer is a square dielectric plate of 64 mm × 64 mm fed by aperture coupling which brings resonance frequencies closer to each other to improve bandwidth. The upper layer is a substrate of the same size, and the substrate is covered with a metasurface composed of 4×4 triangular slots. The impedance bandwidth is expanded by introducing the metasurface from 6.7% of the single-fed antenna to 23.8%, and the overall height of the antenna is 7 mm. The antenna is excited by an aperture coupled structure consisting of a microstrip line on the back and a narrow slot etched on the ground surface. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 23.8%, ranging from 4.8 GHz to 6.1 GHz. The peak gain at 5.6 GHz is about 11.2 dB, and the gain is relatively stable throughout the entire operating frequency band. An antenna prototype is made, and the measurement results verify the design's correctness.
A Wideband High-gain Antenna Loaded with Triangular Ring Metasurface
2023-11-07
PIER M
Vol. 120, 167-178, 2023
download: 113
Analytical Neuro-Space Mapping Technology for Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Modeling
Shuxia Yan , Yuxing Li , Chenglin Li , Fengqi Qian , Xu Wang and Wenyuan Liu
An analytical modeling method for heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is proposed in this paper. The new neuro-space mapping (Neuro-SM) model applied to DC, small signals and large signals simultaneously consists of two mapping networks, which provide the additional degrees of freedom.Sensitivity analysis expressions are derived to accelerate the training process. When the non-linearity of device is high, or the response of the model is complex, the weights in the proposed model are automatically adjusted to address the accuracy limitations. The proposed modeling method is verified by measured HBT examples in DC, smallsignals and largesignals Harmonic Balance (HB) simulation. The modeling experiments of the measured HBT demonstrate that the errors of the proposed Neuro-SM model are less than 2% by matching combined DC, small-signal S-parameters and large-signal HB data, which are less than the errors of the traditional Neuro-SM model and the coarse model. The proposed analytic Neuro-SM model fits the response of the fine model well.
Analytical Neuro-space Mapping Technology for Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Modeling
2023-11-07
PIER M
Vol. 120, 155-165, 2023
download: 130
DGS Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguide Dual Mode Cavity Filter
Xiaohei Yan , Wenjing Mu and Minjie Guo
A novel substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) dual-mode cavity bandpass filter with loaded defected ground structure (DGS) is proposed. The SIW dual-mode cavity operates in two modes, TE110 and TE120, and the field distribution of the TE110 mode is altered by installing a metal perturbation aperture in the middle of the cavity to bring its resonance frequency close to that of the TE120 mode, thus forming a bandpass filter with two resonance points in the passband. A DGS structure is embedded at the ground level of the SIW to introduce a transmission zero in the high-frequency rejection band, thus improving the rejection performance of the filter for the high-frequency rejection band. The simulated and measured results show that the center frequency of the filter is 3.75 GHz; the 3 dB bandwidth is 0.3 GHz; the relative bandwidth is 8%; the return loss is less than -15 dB; and the insertion loss in the passband obtained from the simulation is about -0.35 dB, while that obtained from the measurement is 0.4 dB lower than that of the simulation, and the filter has a transmission zero near the high-frequency stopband of 6 GHz, which enables the high-frequency parasitic passband to move away from the passband of the filter. Except for the passband, all other signals in the Sub-6 GHz band can be effectively suppressed by the filter. This design combines the SIW dual-mode cavity with the DGS structure to design the filter, which can realize the flexible adjustment of bandwidth and transmission zero point, and the design method is simple and innovative. The filter can be applied to the 5G n77 frequency band, which has certain application value.
DGS Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguide Dual Mode Cavity Filter
2023-11-03
PIER M
Vol. 120, 145-154, 2023
download: 129
Measurement and Prediction of Signal Strength of Wireless Sensor Network
Li Yang Foong , Soo Yong Lim and Kheong Sann Chan
This paper utilizes an efficient prediction model using the concept of ray-tracing based on the Theory of Geometrical Optics (GO) to predict the signal strength between two wireless sensor nodes within an indoor environment, which can provide aid to designers in the implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). WSN is a technology that is widely used for functions such as collecting and processing data, then transmit it wirelessly within the network. WSNs are typically autonomous and self-organizing networks of nodes that communicate wirelessly with each other and collaborate to perform tasks such as data processing, sensing, aggregation, and forwarding. With the increasing prevalence of WSNs in indoor environments, installations of numerous sensor nodes are necessary to collect and transmit data in certain areas, which builds up to a single network. Thus, to ensure the functionality of the WSNs, it is of utmost importance to ensure a reliable connection between the nodes, which is directly affected by its location and placement. The prediction model developed in this work is built using MATLAB software, which is then implemented into a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using MATLAB App Designer, which allows modifications to be made to the prediction model as to fit the user’s environment. The results of our prediction model are compared against experimental ones obtained through physical measurements using wireless communications technologies such as ZigBee and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE).
Measurement and Prediction of Signal Strength of Wireless Sensor Network
2023-11-02
PIER M
Vol. 120, 135-144, 2023
download: 160
Design and Optimization of 2D Photonic Crystal Based Compact All Optical T Splitter for Photonic Integrated Circuits
Poonam Jindal and Aarti Bansal
An all-optical compact polarization T splitter based on 2-dimensional photonic crystal with uniform structural and bandgap characteristics is proposed in this paper. A square lattice of silicon substrate with embedded air holes is used to create the proposed structure. Linear waveguides with 90˚ bends are created for light propagation by removing a number of holes to build the structure. Plane Wave Expansion and Finite Difference Time Domain methods are employed for simulating the structure. The transmittance of TE polarized mode at 1550 nm is 96%. The structural parameters, such as air hole radius and dielectric constant, are homogeneous throughout the structure, making production easier and reducing fabrication errors. The proposed polarization splitter has a simple design with small footprints and high Q factor to meet the demands of current optical integrated circuits.
Design and Optimization of 2D Photonic Crystal Based Compact All Optical T Splitter for Photonic Integrated Circuits
2023-10-31
PIER M
Vol. 120, 123-134, 2023
download: 187
5G Sub-6 GHz Wideband Antenna with PSO Optimized Dimensions
Heba Y. M. Soliman , Amany A. Megahed , Mohamed Abdelazim and Ehab H. Abdelhay
In this paper, a rectangular patch antenna that covers the band from 3.2 to 5.7 GHz to support 5G New Radio (NR) sub-6 GHz with high gain and efficiency is designed and implemented. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to get the dimensions of the antenna and slots. The optimization goals are to reach the smallest dimensions of the antenna in the required bandwidth keeping scattering parameter at port 1 |S11| below -10 dB, a gain of 4 dBi or higher, and efficiency more than 90%, respectively. The resonance frequency of a microstrip patch is 4.45 GHz. PSO using the computer simulation tool (CST) software is used to design an antenna with desired frequency response and radiation characteristics for 5G New Radio (NR) sub-6 GHz. The antenna is designed over an FR-4 substrate with a noticeable reduction in cost, simplicity in design, and a small overall size of 23×15 mm2. The antenna is with the partial ground. The antenna has two parallel stubs and EL slots; the lengths of these slots control the desired bandwidth. A high agreement between the simulated and measured results is noticed.
5G Sub-6 GHz Wideband Antenna with PSO Optimized Dimensions
2023-10-29
PIER M
Vol. 120, 113-122, 2023
download: 127
Design of a Hollow Dielectric Loading for Wideband Gain Enhancement of a Horn Antenna
Al-Moatasem Al-Hinaai , Anthony N. Caruso , Roy C. Allen and Kalyan C. Durbhakula
The far-field gain of commercial horn antennas primarily depends on aperture area and flare length. Traditionally, for every dBi of gain increment, the flare length should increase by 20% and the aperture area by 10%. External lens classes, such as gradient refractive index, concave, or Fresnel, are used to improve gain by ≤ 2 dBi, but at the cost of a volumetric increase by 75% in the range of 4.8-6 GHz. We propose a hollow dielectric loading (HDL) loaded in the flare section of the horn antenna. The shape and position of the HDL are optimized using an evolutionary algorithm to obtain the maximum gain from a conical corrugated horn antenna (CCHA) at boresight. The optimized design yielded a total volume 84% smaller than traditional external lenses while achieving 3.5 dBi peak gain improvement in the operating frequency range. We also observed an improvement in the electric field by 24% while retaining parity in the impedance bandwidth. A 3D-printed prototype of the optimized CCHA and the HDL is fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results demonstrated good agreement with a maximum difference of 4%.
Design of a Hollow Dielectric Loading for Wideband Gain Enhancement of a Horn Antenna
2023-10-26
PIER M
Vol. 120, 95-111, 2023
download: 459
Wearable Dual-Band Frequency Reconfigurable Patch Antenna for WBAN Applications
Umar Musa , Shaharil Mohd Shah , Huda Bin Abdul Majid , Mohamad Kamal Abd Rahim , Muhammad Sani Yahya , Zainab Yunusa , Abubakar Salisu and Zuhairiah Zainal Abidin
A wearable dual-band patch antenna is presented, which can adjust its frequency for WBAN applications. Frequency reconfiguration is achieved by the antenna through the utilization of the switching properties of a PIN diode. Produced using a Rogers Duroid material with semi-flexible properties, the antenna has a size of 0.33λ0 × 0.35λ0 × 0.012λ0. Initially resonating at 5.8 GHz, a slot in the shape of an inverted letter U is included to introduce a dual-band operation at 2.4 GHz. By controlling the PIN diode's ON and OFF states, the antenna can switch between single-band (ISM 5.8 GHz) and dual-band (ISM 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz) operations. The antenna exhibits a bi-directional radiation pattern at 2.4 GHz and a directional pattern at 5.8 GHz. In the ON state, the antenna achieves a peak gain and total efficiency of 4.84 dBi, 5.87 dBi, 92.5%, and 92.7% at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz, respectively. In the OFF state at 5.8 GHz, a peak gain and total efficiency of 6.01 dBi and 91.8% are measured. To evaluate its suitability for WBAN applications, the antenna's performance is assessed by measuring SAR values on a human tissue model. At 2.4 GHz, the SAR values for 1/10 g of human tissue are 0.411/0.177 W/kg respectively. Similarly, at 5.8 GHz, the SAR values are 0.438/0.158 W/kg respectively. The SAR values comply with the established standards of the FCC and ICNIRP for both resonance frequencies for human tissue weighing 1/10 g. Overall, the antenna boasts a compact size, acceptable SAR values, and satisfactory gain and efficiency across all operating bands, surpassing previous works. It also benefits from a simplified design employing a single switch, and the antenna remains a suitable choice for WBAN applications considering its other advantageous characteristics mentioned above.
Wearable Dual-band Frequency Reconfigurable Patch Antenna for WBAN Applications
2023-10-25
PIER M
Vol. 120, 83-94, 2023
download: 164
High-Eccentricity Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar with Multi-Parameters Joint Agile Variation
Xuhang Lu , Wei Xu , Pingping Huang , Weixian Tan and Yaolong Qi
The variable orbit altitude and platform velocity in high-eccentricity orbit synthetic aperture radar (HEO SAR) increase the difficulty in obtaining effective radar echoes. In this letter, a new stripmap imaging mode with multi-parameter joint agile variation in HEO-SAR is proposed. First, the range side-looking angle is adjusted during the whole raw data acquisition interval according to the time-varying side-looking geometric relationship, while the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is continuously changed to obtain uniform azimuth sampling due to the satellite velocity variation. Besides simultaneously adjusting the side-looking angle and the operated PRF, echo sampling start time and range sampling points are also continuously changed to decrease the echo data rate. According to the echo characteristics in HEO SAR, its corresponding imaging algorithm is presented, which includes range samples adjustment, azimuth resampling, cubic filtering, nonuniform Fourier fast transform (NUFFT) for nonlinear range cell migration correction (RCMC) and modified azimuth compression. A system design example with multi-parameters joint agile variation for the desired resolution of 3 m and the swath width of 30 km is given, while an imaging simulation experiments on point targets are carried out. Both simulation results of multi-parameters variation design and point targets imaging validate the proposed stripmap imaging mode with multi-parameters joint agile variation in HEO SAR.
High-eccentricity Orbit Synthetic Aperture Radar with Multi-parameters Joint Agile Variation
2023-10-25
PIER M
Vol. 120, 69-82, 2023
download: 142
Multi-Objective Optimal Design of Single-Phase Line-Starting Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Response Surface Method
Shixiong Yin and Aiyuan Wang
Single-phase asynchronous motors have an irreplaceable role in small production fields such as household appliances and office equipment. However, due to the existence of small single-phase asynchronous motors with low power factor, low efficiency, vibration and noise, and other problems, the performance of a single-phase asynchronous motor, including efficiency, power factor, and vibration noise has been unable to meet the increasing needs of people. In this paper, a single-phase line-starting permanent magnet synchronous motor (SPLSPMSM) for air compressor is designed with the core size of Y series three-phase asynchronous motor for reference. The operating capacitance, the number of turns of the main stator winding, the turns ratio of the main and auxiliary windings, and the permanent magnet size are selected as optimization variables, and the efficiency, power factor, and starting torque are the optimization objectives. A regression model was developed by the response surface method (RSM) to optimize the performance of the motor, and the reliability of the response surface experiment was verified. The results show that the performance of the optimized motor is improved in terms of rated operation and starting performance.
Multi-objective Optimal Design of Single-phase Line-starting Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on Response Surface Method
2023-10-22
PIER M
Vol. 120, 55-67, 2023
download: 167
A Novel Passive Millimeter Wave Image Noise Suppression Method Based on Pixel Non-Local Self-Similarity
Jin Yang and Yuehua Li
To solve the problem of mixed noise in a passive millimeter-wave (PMMW) imaging system that affects object detection, recognition, and classification, this paper proposes a blind denoising algorithm based on pixel non-local self-similarity (PNSS) prior to PMMW images. Firstly, an adaptive filtering algorithm is introduced, utilizing PNSS prior to estimating the noise intensity and improving the problem of noise residual caused by parameter uncertainty in traditional filtering processes. Secondly, a three-level joint denoising algorithm is developed, accompanied by an iterative regression algorithm to effectively filter the mixed noise in PMMW images while preserving image contours. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through a comparison with patch similarity-based prior denoising methods and high-dimensional mixed noise denoising methods. Experimental results substantiate that the proposed PNSS blind denoising method successfully suppresses mixed noise in PMMW images, enhances subjective visual perception, and presents a novel approach for denoising under various PMMW imaging mechanisms.
A Novel Passive Millimeter Wave Image Noise Suppression Method Based on Pixel Non-local Self-similarity
2023-10-21
PIER M
Vol. 120, 41-54, 2023
download: 528
Lateral Flow Immunoassay Strip Based on Confocal Raman Imaging for Ultrasensitive and Rapid Detection of COVID-19 and Bacterial Biomarkers
Chuan Zhang , Anqi Yang and Sailing He
Rapid and sensitive analysis of proteins in complex biological environments is crucial for the screening and defense against infectious diseases. Here, we show that the lateral flow immunoassay strip based on confocal Raman imaging can achieve immune analysis at pM and ~104 cfu/mL molecular level for the rapid detection of COVID-19 virus and bacteria. Fluorescent dyes of Alexa 647 were used as Raman markers in the Raman silent region of 1800 cm-1 and 2800 cm-1, and colloidal gold nanospheres were used to enhance the Raman signal. Raman imaging was performed with our self-developed confocal Raman microscopy for COVID-19 and Escherichia coli O157: H7 on lateral flow immunoassay strip. Compared to traditional colloidal gold test strips, the sensitivity of this technology has been significantly improved. This work will promote the widespread application of surface enhanced Raman detection for bacteria and virus, which is of great significance for in vitro screening and disease diagnosis.
Lateral Flow Immunoassay Strip Based on Confocal Raman Imaging for Ultrasensitive and Rapid Detection of COVID-19 and Bacterial Biomarkers
2023-10-16
PIER M
Vol. 120, 29-40, 2023
download: 220
An Multilayer Metamaterial Inspired Antenna for in-Body and on-Body Application
Siddhant Goswami , Deepak C. Karia , Tapas Bhuiya and Vikalp Pratap Singh
In this research work, a flexible metamaterial inspired antenna is proposed. The substrate is made of polyamide making it bendable. The stepwise detail analysis is discussed, and the antenna has two complimentary split resonators with circular ring placed in the ground plane. A superstrate along with an EBG structure is added in the final design. Mathematical modelling is done to prove metamaterial structure. To test the on-body results, first the permittivity of different fabrics is measured using DSL-01 (SES Instruments Pvt. Ltd). Phantom solution is required to test In-Body (Implantable) results.
An Multilayer Metamaterial Inspired Antenna for In-Body and On-Body Application
2023-10-14
PIER M
Vol. 120, 15-27, 2023
download: 189
2-Port High Gain Millimeter-Wave MIMO Antenna for 5G Applications
Mingming Gao , Hongliang Niu , Jing Chang Nan , Wen Hui Liu and Chun Li Liu
In order to improve the distance of 5th Generation (5G) Mobile Communication Technology) millimeter-wave outdoor point-to-point relay transmission, a 2-port Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna with high gain and low sidelobe level characteristics is designed at 39 GHz. The antenna is designed using the Taylor synthesis method and slotting technology to increase the antenna gain and lower the sidelobe level. Loading hollow T-shaped branches reduces the mutual coupling between MIMO antennas. The measured results are basically in line with the simulation ones. The results show that the bandwidth of the antenna is 38.1 ~ 39.3 GHz; the isolation degree is more than 50 dB; the antenna gain is 25.75 dBi at 39 GHz; the E-plane and H-plane sidelobe levels are -20.5 dB and -20 dB, respectively. Furthermore, the Envelope Correlation Coefficient (ECC) is less than 0.022; the Diversity Gain (DG) is more than 9.89; and the radiation efficiency reaches 90% in the working frequency band. Therefore, this antenna can be used as a long-distance relay antenna in 5G millimeter-wave communication system with high gain and low sidelobe level characteristics based on meeting the requirements of the MIMO antenna.
2-Port High Gain Millimeter-wave MIMO Antenna for 5G Applications
2023-10-14
PIER M
Vol. 120, 1-14, 2023
download: 128
Impact of Phase Noise on Sidelobe Cancellation System Utilizing Distributed Phase-Lock-Loops
Qing Wang , Kang Luo and Huanding Qin
Phase noise is a common hardware impairment that affects the performance of beamforming systems. Therefore, analysis of its impact is of great practical interest. Although Sidelobe Cancellation (SLC) is a mature technique, existing analyses typically ignore the effect of phase noise, due to the shared assumption that the down-conversion circuits have a common local-oscillator (LO). However, when distributed phase-lock-loops (PLLs) are used, the impact of phase noise cannot be neglected. Therefore, this paper derives new mathematical models of performances, including signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and beamforming gain. Exact and approximated analytical models are obtained, respectively. In addition, we propose an average beam pattern formula to replace the traditional beam pattern formula, to improve the consistency between beam null depth and the beamforming gain. The theoretical findings are verified through signal-level simulations.
Impact of Phase Noise on Sidelobe Cancellation System Utilizing Distributed Phase-Lock-Loops