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2024-02-06
PIER M
Vol. 123, 145-151, 2024
download: 80
An Array of Double-Cornu Spiral Antenna
Paul Tcheg , Matthias Möck and David Pouhè
Based on a framework recently published, the double-Cornu spiral antenna is extended to an array to enhance the gain. The designed array of 2×2-elements is of low profile and small sizes, has however a large effective bandwidth, and shows overall good radiation characteristics: enhanced gain, large axial ratio bandwidth, and high degree of polarization purity. Except for a few deviations, which are due to manufacturing tolerances, artificial noise and measurement uncertainties on the one hand and diffracted waves at external edges on the other, simulated results and experimental data fit well together. In addition, EMC along with signal integrity issues related to the reduction of noise and unwanted radiation have been addressed. The proposed antenna is suitable for 5G applications and radar systems. With 14.02 dB realized gain, 6.2 GHz effective bandwidth and an uplink data rate of 3.44 Mbit/s, the array is promising for many mobility applications.
An Array of Double-Cornu Spiral Antenna
2024-02-12
PIER M
Vol. 123, 137-144, 2024
download: 103
Screen Printed High Gain EBG-Based Wearable Textile Antenna for Wireless Medical Band Applications
Somasundaram Arulmurugan , TR Suresh Kumar and Zachariah Callottu Alex
A screen-printed wearable coplanar waveguide (CPW) fed semi-octagonal shaped antenna is developed on a denim textile substrate to resonate at 2.45 GHz for wireless medical body area network communications. The antenna is integrated with a circular ring-type electromagnetic bandgap structure (EBG) to mitigate performance degradation due to the high permittivity of the tissue model when it works on body conditions. The CPW antenna and EBG surfaces are fabricated using the screen-printing method, which provides good conformability, good wearable comfortability, and light weight. The proposed EBG integrated antenna has dimensions of 0.66λ × 0.66λ × 0.056λ and an impedance bandwidth of 13% (2.3-2.62 GHz) with a gain of 6.7 dB. The specific absorption rates (SARs) of the antenna are 0.309 W/kg and 0.14 W/kg for 1 g and 10 g of tissue, respectively, which are within the wearable safety limits. Thus, the fabricated prototype antenna is suitable for wearable WBAN and MBAN applications.
Screen Printed High Gain EBG-based Wearable Textile Antenna for Wireless Medical Band Applications
2024-02-02
PIER M
Vol. 123, 127-135, 2024
download: 97
Dual-Band and Dual-Sense Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Filtering Response
Chuanyun Wang , Weikang Hu , Xiaofeng Jiang , Qilei Fan and Jianjun Huang
A dual-band dual-sense (DBDS) circularly polarized (CP) filtering dielectric resonator antenna (FDRA) with a quasi-elliptic band-pass response is proposed in this paper. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular dielectric resonator (DR) with a Z-shaped strip at the top, a ground plane with a rectangular slot, and a microstrip feedline etched with a section of the spur line. By using the microstrip coupled slot line structure to excite DR with a Z-shaped strip, different senses of circular polarization are achieved in the two bands. The results show that the lower and upper bands are independently controlled by the strip and the DR, respectively. In addition, three radiation nulls are generated at the passband's edge by elaborately designing a half-wavelength open stub and etching the spur line. For demonstration, a prototype DBDS CPFDRA is fabricated and measured. The measurements illustrate that the antenna achieves a wide impedance bandwidth of 38.2%, as well as a dual axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 2.2% for the left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and 4% for the right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). The realized gain exhibits a decline of 25 dB at the passband edge, indicating high selectivity.
Dual-band and Dual-sense Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Filtering Response
2024-02-02
PIER M
Vol. 123, 119-126, 2024
download: 100
Fault-Tolerant Control of d -PMSG Demagnetization Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller
Bing Luo , Bozhong Liu , Sicheng Peng , Zhi Yu and Yang Zhang
When demagnetization occurs, direct-drive permanent magnet synchronous wind generator exhibits problems of poor dynamic performance, weak immunity to disturbances and speed fluctuations. Aiming at these problems, this paper proposes a cascaded linear active disturbance rejection control method. First, the mathematical models of the generator during normal operation and demagnetization are described. Second, the linear active disturbance rejection controller (LADRC) for the speed and current loops is designed. The compensation for demagnetization disturbances at the speed loop's input is enabled by the control approach. The current output of the speed loop is imported as a rated value into the LADRC of the current loop. At the same time, the current is compensated at the input. Compensated speed and current accurately track the given values, and the goal of achieving demagnetization fault tolerance is met. Finally, this method is compared with dual-loop Proportional Integral (PI) control. The experimental results affirm that, under this control method, when demagnetization occurs, the speed fluctuation is reduced by 95.7%, the current response time decreased from 0.01 seconds to 0.001 seconds, and the electromagnetic torque ripple amplitude reduced by 50%. These experimental results fully validate the heightened fault tolerance and resistance to interference exhibited by the method advocated in this paper.
Fault-tolerant Control of D-PMSG Demagnetization Based on Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Controller
2024-02-01
PIER M
Vol. 123, 105-117, 2024
download: 148
Calculation and Optimization of Magnetic Leakage in Electric Vehicle WPT Based on Bidirectional Inverse Series Coils of Four Meshes
Xueyi Zhang , Bin Li , Liquan Ren , Pengsheng Kong and Zhongqi Li
In the wireless power transfer (WPT) system of electric vehicles, the system leakage magnetic field and transmission efficiency depend on the coil structure, and the traditional unipolar coil has high transmission efficiency but generates high leakage magnetic field. In order to maintain the transmission efficiency while reducing the magnetic leakage and improve the safety index of the WPT system, this paper proposes a bidirectional inverse series coil of four meshes structure (FBISC), which maintains the high transmission efficiency of the WPT system only by the advantages of the coil structure without applying any metal materials and shielding coils. At the same time, the leakage field produced by the coil structure of the target area is less than the safety limit value, which makes the traditional shielding coils no longer necessary, and is light, clean, and highly efficient. First, the leakage magnetic field generated by the coil in the target region after energization is analytically calculated using a vector potential-based method for calculating the magnetic induction strength of rectangular coils. Secondly, a coil parameter assignment optimization method that weighs two structural performance indexes, namely, transmission efficiency and leakage magnetic field, is given to obtain the coil parameters that satisfy the given conditions. Furthermore, the proposed coil structure is compared with the conventional coil structure. Compared with the conventional unipolar coil, the bidirectional inverse series coil of four meshes reduces the leakage magnetic field by 56.4% and sacrifices only 2.38% of the transmission efficiency. Compared with the reverse double D coil (DD coil), the bidirectional inverse series coils of four meshes reduces the leakage magnetic field in the target region by 48.5% and sacrifices only 1.3% of the transmission efficiency. Finally, an electric vehicle WPT system with shielding is built to verify the correctness of the proposed structure. The results show that the leakage magnetic field of the FBISC coil structure in the target region is only 5.22 μT, and the transmission efficiency is more than 95% at an output power of 4 kW.
Calculation and Optimization of Magnetic Leakage in Electric Vehicle WPT Based on Bidirectional Inverse Series Coils of Four Meshes
2024-01-31
PIER M
Vol. 123, 95-103, 2024
download: 135
Compact Broadband Low-Pass Filter with Novel Fishbone Structure Based on Spoof Surface Plasmon Polariton
Haodong Xu , Fushun Nian , Jianqin Deng and Muzhi Gao
A compact spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP) low-pass filter is proposed. By adopting a novel fishbone structure, the effective depth of the groove is increased, reducing the filter width by 24.84%. The length of the filter is reduced by 22.23% with a new transmission structure. To intuitively display this structure, the filter is designed and fabricated. The area of the filter is 47.44 mm × 8 mm. The results demonstrate that the insertion and return losses are less than 3 dB and greater than 13 dB, respectively, in a wideband range of 0-10.00 GHz.
Compact Broadband Low-pass Filter with Novel Fishbone Structure Based on Spoof Surface Plasmon Polariton
2024-01-23
PIER M
Vol. 123, 83-93, 2024
download: 129
Relaxation of the Courant Condition in the Explicit Finite-Difference Time-Domain(2,6) Method with Third- and Fifth-Degree Differential Terms
Harune Sekido and Takayuki Umeda
A new non-dissipative and explicit finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed for relaxation of the Courant condition of FDTD(2,6) in three and two dimensions. To the time-development equations, the third- and fifth-degree spatial difference terms with fourth- and second-order accuracy, respectively, are appended with coefficients. A set of optimal coefficients for the appended terms is searched to minimize the numerical error in phase velocity but relax the Courant condition as well. The numerical errors with the new method are more reduced than those with the previous methods for each Courant number. However, there exists a large anisotropy in the phase velocity errors at large Courant numbers.
Relaxation of the Courant Condition in the Explicit Finite-Difference Time-Domain(2,6) Method with Third- and Fifth-degree Differential Terms
2024-01-20
PIER M
Vol. 123, 73-82, 2024
download: 151
A Novel of Metamaterial Ultra Compact Reconfigurable Phase Shifter Based on Dual Composite Right Left Handed Structure (d -CRLH)
Yasser Sobhy Farag , Mohamed R. Abaza and Ahmed Fawzy Daw
A novel ultra-compact dual-band reconfigurable microstrip phase shifter designed by using a dual-composite right/left handed D-CRLH technique of metamaterial is introduced. The paper proposes detailed studies between the simulation and the fabricated prototype results. Moreover, the study of the proposed phase shifter explains a shifting range from 0° till 360° by submitting four mounted surface switches in different spots of the fingers. Switches have fixed states shifting to provide the controlling of the requested range. The switches were chosen to be from PIN Diode as it has many compatible characteristics which are explained in the proposed paper. The reconfigurable phase shifter designed with high quality factors and low insertion loss 0.25 and 0.2 at 5.7 GHz and 7.5 GHz respectively with a very compact size area 8 x 11 mm2, beside that the proposed shifter support the application of wide band usage especially for network access point, Wi-Fi, WiMAX network and wireless LAN connections in addition to the application of point to point microwave radio links and X-band of satellite & space communications.
A Novel of Metamaterial Ultra Compact Reconfigurable Phase Shifter Based on Dual Composite Right Left Handed Structure (D-CRLH)
2024-01-16
PIER M
Vol. 123, 63-71, 2024
download: 157
Design of a Sensor Based on CSRR-Derived Structures for Characterizing Permittivity and Permeability Simultaneously
Honggang Hao , Yun-Rui Wang , Bing Wang , Ye Zhang and Xing-Rui Ni
A dual-port microstrip sensor based on a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR)-derived structure is proposed to measure the permittivity and permeability simultaneously in this paper. The coupling among meandered conductive ring, interdigital capacitor, and microstrip line is used to obtain the relatively independent distribution area of the highest intensity of the electric field and magnetic field. It can be utilized to distinguish the influence of permittivity and permeability on the resonant frequency point. A numerical model was established for extracting the magnetic and dielectric properties, and the sensor was processed and tested. The findings demonstrate that the sensor can measure permittivity and permeability in a single operation by taking advantage of the resonant properties of low and high frequencies. The relative errors of the measured permittivity and permeability are controlled within 4.43% and 3.41%, as well as the sensitivity values Sfm and Sfe of 7.24 and 3.06, indicating excellent overall performance.
Design of a Sensor Based on CSRR-derived Structures for Characterizing Permittivity and Permeability Simultaneously
2024-01-15
PIER M
Vol. 123, 53-61, 2024
download: 230
An Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for a Drone-Mounted Ground Probing Radar
Stefano Pisa , Federico Pastori , Renato Cicchetti , Emanuele Piuzzi , Orlandino Testa , Erika Pittella , Andrea Cicchetti , Paolo D'Atanasio and Alessandro Zambotti
An antenna operating between 300\,MHz and 700\,MHz, designed to be used on a ground penetrating radar installed on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for the exploration and characterization of the buried ice deposits on Mars, is presented. To this end, a lightweight, high-gain Vivaldi antenna having compact dimensions and high operating bandwidth has been taken into consideration. This antenna, equipped with circular-loaded rectangular slots etched on its radiating arms, exhibits improved performance in terms of size, return loss, gain, and fidelity factor with respect to a conventional antipodal Vivaldi antenna. Experimental measurements performed on a prototype of the Vivaldi antenna with slots showed a return loss lower than -12 dB with realized gains between 4 dBi and 6.5 dBi in the 300-700 MHz frequency band.
An Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna for a Drone-mounted Ground Probing Radar
2024-01-15
PIER M
Vol. 123, 45-52, 2024
download: 81
A Quad Port MIMO Antenna Using Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array for Intelligent Transportation System Applications
Goffar Ali Sarkar , Khan Masood Parvez , Arunachalam Ambika , Tanvir Islam , Sudipta Das , Utpal Mandal and Susanta Kumar Parui
This article presents a quad port multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna based on arrays of rectangular dielectric resonators for intelligent automotive applications. The proposed MIMO antenna configuration is formulated by integrating four rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) arrays. Two RDRAs are configured as E-plane arrays and the other two as H-plane arrays. Each array consists of two radiating elements, evenly spaced apart. Direct microstrip line (DML) feeding, a novel kind of feeding technique to cope up with back radiation issue which occurs owing to discrete grooves on ground plane is employed to feed RDRA. The orthogonal mode in individual arrays (H-plane and E-plane) results in increased isolation. The overall dimension of the suggested quad port MIMO antenna is (2.21λ0×1.32λ0). The prescribed RDRA array operates at 5.9 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 6.9% for Port1 and 8.1% for Port2, respectively. The measured isolation is more than -24 dB. For this MIMO antenna measured peak gain of 9.6 dBi is noticed. Various MIMO performance metrics such as the total active reflection coefficient (TARC), diversity gain (DG), channel capacity loss (CCL), and envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) have been studied in detail and discussed in this article. It is noteworthy that these measurements continue to fall within allowable threshold ranges, indicating the appropriateness of the prescribed MIMO antenna for the intended applications in intelligent automotive system.
A Quad Port MIMO Antenna Using Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array for Intelligent Transportation System Applications
2024-01-10
PIER M
Vol. 123, 35-43, 2024
download: 213
Triband Dual Port h -SRR MIMO Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX /Wi-Fi 6 Applications
Puneet Sehgal and Kamlesh Patel
A CPW-fed hexagon-shaped split ring resonator (H-SRR) antenna consisting of three concentric SRR rings is proposed for triband WLAN/WiMAX and Wi-Fi6 applications. A single port optimized antenna has a size of 43×22×1.6 mm3 with two ports, and a multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) antenna based on the same H-SRR design is of size 95×52×1.6 mm3. The use of metallic loadings between the rings led to an impedance bandwidth of 21%/65% for the single-port H-SRR antenna and 33%/66.5% for the dual-port H-SRR antenna in the 2.4 GHz band and 5.2/6 GHz bands. The antennas exhibit a gain in the range of 2-2.7 dB and good radiation characteristics. Also, the proposed antenna design achieves isolation of more than 30 dB without using any de-coupling network making the structure simple and compact. For tri-band applications of the proposed dual port antenna, the MIMO parameters ECC, TARC, DG, and MEG are found about < 0.005, < -10 dB, ≤ 10 dB, and < -6 dB, respectively in the 2.4/5.2/6 GHz bands without any decoupling structure. Measurements with a commercial transmitter at 5.8 GHz confirmed that these antennas offer better Wi-Fi 6 connectivity. Thus, the results confirm that the novel features of the proposed antennas are simple structure, wideband operation, and moderate gain with a compact size in the 2.4/5.2/6 GHz bands, and therefore, these presented antennas are useful in the current WLAN/WiMAX systems as well as upcoming Wi-Fi 6 applications like routers.
Triband Dual Port H-SRR MIMO Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX/Wi-Fi 6 Applications
2024-01-09
PIER M
Vol. 123, 23-33, 2024
download: 149
Uncertainty Analysis Method for Electromagnetic Compatibility Simulation Based on Random Variable Black Box Model
Jinjun Bai , Bing Hu , Shenghang Huo and Ming Li
In recent years, uncertainty analysis is a hot topic in the field of electromagnetic compatibility simulation. The actual electromagnetic environment is simulated by considering the randomness of the model input parameters. However, there are currently two key issues that have not been resolved. One is the curse of dimensionality problem that occurs when there are many random variables. The other is how to establish a random input model with generality and portability. In order to address these issues, this paper proposes a new random input modeling method called random variable black box model. When applying to the Stochastic Collocation Method with dimensionality reduction sparse grid strategy, the applicability of this uncertainty analysis method can be extended to any probability density function, then enabling efficient electromagnetic compatibility simulation uncertainty analysis of high-dimensional random variable models and fundamentally solving the curse of dimensionality problem. Finally, this paper implements a joint simulation technology of the MATLAB software and the COMSOL software to verify the strong portability of the random variable black box model, ensuring that advanced uncertainty analysis methods can be smoothly introduced into commercial electromagnetic simulation software and expanding the application scope of uncertainty analysis.
Uncertainty Analysis Method for Electromagnetic Compatibility Simulation Based on Random Variable Black Box Model
2024-01-08
PIER M
Vol. 123, 13-21, 2024
download: 184
Two Approaches for Designing Circularly Polarized OAM Reflectarrays
Yuxuan Ding , Yunhua Zhang and Xiaowen Zhao
By calculating the compensation phase distribution from the radiation fields of the feed, two approaches are proposed for reflectarrays (RAs) generating circularly polarized orbital angular momentum (CP-OAM) beams with higher mode purity. Particularly, if the radiation fields are extracted in spherical coordinates rather than Cartesian coordinates, the required phase distribution for generating a CP-OAM beam of +1/-1 mode can be directly obtained according to our mathematical derivation which shows that the spherical components of left-/right-hand circularly polarized (LHCP/RHCP) fields naturally involve the OAM phase term of +1/-1 mode. To better demonstrate our work, the CP-OAM RAs with both smooth and corrugated horns of RHCP as feeds are designed by three approaches: the conventional approach (CA) based on approximation of phase center, and the two approaches based on simulated radiation fields in Cartesian coordinates (CCA) and spherical coordinates (SCA), respectively. Full-wave simulation results show that the OAM mode purity can be enhanced by either CCA or SCA, and the SCA can produce even higher mode purities than CCA when an offset feed is employed.
Two Approaches for Designing Circularly Polarized OAM Reflectarrays
2023-12-28
PIER M
Vol. 123, 1-11, 2024
download: 224
Wearable Antenna with Reduced SAR Using Novel FSS Reflector for IoT Assisted Wireless Healthcare Applications
Shivani Sharma and Malay Ranjan Tripathy
In this research work, a flexible polymer-based compact wearable antenna has been designed, fabricated, and analysed for Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) IoT enabled applications. The antenna is fabricated on a Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) with λL as the lowest operating free-space wavelength resonating for sub-6-GHz band at 2.4 GHz, 3.3 GHz, 4.1 GHz and 5.8 GHz. Periodic Frequency Selective Surface (FSS) reflector is used which reduces Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) antenna and enhances the gain of the antenna. The simulation results prove that this flexible wearable antenna radiates an increased gain of approximately 10 dB and returns loss of -36 dB at lowest frequency with FSS as a reflector. The simulation results are validated by experimental results which offer a good agreement. An average SAR value of l.5 watts/gm is measured within the specific safety limit which makes it feasible for practical implementation. This antenna provides better isolation against on-body losses and reduces SAR value with improved radiation efficiency for WBAN IoT enabled applications.
Wearable Antenna with Reduced SAR Using Novel FSS Reflector for IoT Assisted Wireless Healthcare Applications