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2024-03-06
PIER M
Vol. 124, 125-133, 2024
download: 97
Analysis of a Compact Dual/Single Band Tunable BPF for 5G/X-Band Applications
Surendra Babu Velgaleti and Siddaiah Nalluri
Currently, various microwave filter designs contend for the use in wireless communications. Among several microstrip filter designs, the tunable filter presents more advantages and better prospects for wireless communication applications, being compact in size, cost effective, and light in weight. These reconfigurable microwave filters can reduce the number of switches between the electronic components. The number of switches among the electronic devices can be decreased using tunable BPF The tunable BPF is designed for X-band satellite communication applications as well as n77, n78, and n79 5G applications, and HSCH 3486 PIN diode is used to achieve the filter's tunability. An impedance bandwidth of 2.4 GHz and 2 GHz (fractional bandwidth of 25%) has been achieved with an S21 less than -1.5 dB, -2 dB and S11 of -22 dB and -31 dB at both the resonating frequencies. Semicircular cavity bandpass filter has been designed with the center frequency of 3.7 GHz. Switching between the two passbands has been obtained by attaching a PIN diode between the input and output feed lines.
Analysis of a Compact Dual/Single Band Tunable BPF for 5G/X-band Applications
2024-03-05
PIER M
Vol. 124, 115-123, 2024
download: 93
Power Mapping Studies on the Coil Connection of an Interior and Embedded Permanent Magnet Double Stator Generator
Nur Amira Ibrahim , Norhisam Misron , Hairul Faizi Hairulnizam , Chockalingam Aravind , Farzilah Mailah Nashiren and Ishak Aris
The increased electrical demand in electrical machines promotes the improvement in power density in double stator systems. The power mapping performance and density of a novel type of interior embedded permanent magnet for a double-stator generator (IEDSG) is investigated in this work. This study investigates the basic attributes of the proposed IEDSG by analyzing various load resistances and changing rotor speeds. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to model the generation capabilities that consider electromagnetic properties such as flux density and flux lines. The proposed IEDSG is then manufactured and tested in a laboratory environment to assess how effectively it will perform when being paired with a load circuit. The efficiencies of two unique coil connections - series coil and independent coil - are evaluated and compared. According to the experimental results, when operating at an 800-rpm rotating speed, the independent-coil connection delivers a peak power output of 1688 W, a 16% improvement over the series-coil connection.
Power Mapping Studies on the Coil Connection of an Interior and Embedded Permanent Magnet Double Stator Generator
2024-03-05
PIER M
Vol. 124, 107-114, 2024
download: 77
A Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Filtering Response
Chuanyun Wang , Xiaofeng Jiang , Weikang Hu , Qilei Fan and Jianjun Huang
In this paper, a wideband circularly polarized (CP) filtering dielectric resonator antenna (FDRA) is proposed. The proposed antenna consists of a microstrip-Y-shaped slot line coupled feeding structure and a grooved DRA. The Y-shaped slot line not only serves as an energy coupling structure to excite the orthogonal modes (TEx111 mode and TEy111 mode) of DRA, forming the CP radiation effect, but also generates two resonant modes, thereby broadening the antenna impedance bandwidth. In addition, due to the groove engraved on the diagonal of the DRA top wall, the antenna CP performance within the passband is enhanced. Finally, by loading a shorting stub and a spur line on the microstrip feedline, radiation nulls are generated on both sides of the antenna passband, resulting in a quasi-elliptical filter response in the antenna gain curve. To further verify the performance of the antenna design, a prototype CP FDRA is fabricated and measured. The measurement results indicate that the antenna achieves a -10 dB impedance bandwidth of 46.1% (2.67-4.27 GHz) and an axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 23% (3.08-3.88 GHz), with an average measured gain of approximately 4.9 dBi. This antenna exhibits high-frequency selectivity and an out-of-band suppression level exceeding 10 dB.
2024-03-05
PIER M
Vol. 124, 99-106, 2024
download: 88
A Compact, High Gain Ring Metamaterial Unit Cell Loaded Triple Band Antenna for 5G Application
KM Neeshu and Anjini Kumar Tiwary
A novel planer, compact and quarter-wave transformer-coupled fed multi-band antenna is proposed and designed. The antenna uses a split-ring resonator (SRR) inspired ring metamaterial unit cell. The proposed ring metamaterial unit cell gives single negative (Epsilon negative) behaviour, which improves antenna performance. A partial ground and a quarter-wave transformer-coupled feed line are used to improve the impedance matching of the antenna. The antenna gives multi-band operation at resonating frequencies, 3.5, 8.5, and 13.7 GHz, with 2.9-4.5 GHz, 8.0-10.34 GHz, and 12.3-14.3 GHz, respectively. The maximum gains at resonating frequencies are 1.5 dBi, 4.1 dBi, and 6.5 dBi, with good impedance matching. The novelty of the antenna design is that the loading of the ring unit cell gives resonance at a much smaller wavelength than the resonant wavelength. The proposed antenna provides a miniaturized and multiband response compared to a conventional patch antenna.
A Compact, High Gain Ring Metamaterial Unit Cell Loaded Triple Band Antenna for 5G Application
2024-03-03
PIER M
Vol. 124, 89-97, 2024
download: 96
Research on Perspective Imaging Method of Building Structure Based on Multipath Information
Zhong-Yu Liu , Ya-Xing Qin , Li-Xin Guo , Ren-Jiang Zhu , Zhi-Gang Zhong , Zuo-Yong Nan , Ya Wang and Ling-Feng Shen
The internal structural details of unknown structures are very helpful to our personnel in carrying out activities during anti-terrorism operations and emergency disaster relief operations in urban environments. According to multipath identification and propagation mechanism separation technology, a building structure perspective imaging algorithm based on the ray-tracing model is proposed in this paper by making full use of the rich multipath delay power spectrum information and gradually filtering the multipath. Based on the imaging results taking overall consideration of all the propagation factors involved, the presented study is used to obtain the intricate geometric structure of indoor buildings. The original approach is then verified by using measured data, and the proposed algorithm is further optimized by extracting the internal wall structure of the building scene based on the Hough transform algorithm. In comparison with the real wall of the building, the average error of the inverse building wall position using simulated data is 0.071 m, and the average error of the inverse building wall position using the measured data is 0.355 m.
Research on Perspective Imaging Method of Building Structure Based on Multipath Information
2024-02-20
PIER M
Vol. 124, 79-88, 2024
download: 185
A Low SAR High Isolation Fully Flexible MIMO Antenna Integrated with AMC Array
Ling Zhang , Chengzhu Du , Hai-Feng Shu and Zhi-Hua Yue
This paper presents a flexible wearable multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with low specific absorption rate (SAR) and high isolation based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC), which is applied to wireless body area network (WBAN). The antenna consists of two orthogonal antenna elements, which are connected to the ground, and the size is 45 mm×22 mm×0.1 mm. By integrating a 4×5 square artificial magnetic conductor array on the back of the antenna, the gain of the antenna is improved, and the backward radiation of the antenna to the human body is reduced. Both antenna and AMC array are printed on 0.1 mm flexible substrate liquid crystal polymer (LCP). The results of measurement illustrate that the integrated antenna operates at 5.55 GHz-6.4 GHz (14.6%), and the port isolation is better than 20 dB. At 5.8 GHz, the measured antenna gain is 7.92 dBi, and the front-to-back ratio (FBR) is 17.5 dB. The analysis results of integrated antenna placement at different parts of the human body and bending measurement show that the SAR value is reduced by 99.4%, and the measured performance is good. The proposed MIMO antenna integrated with AMC can be safely applied in wearable applications.
A Low SAR High Isolation Fully Flexible MIMO Antenna Integrated with AMC Array
2024-02-20
PIER M
Vol. 124, 71-77, 2024
download: 133
On Chip Modulated Scattering Tag Operating at Millimetric Frequency Band
Irene Dal Chiele , Massimo Donelli , Jacopo Iannacci and Koushik Guha
A miniaturized modulated scattering technique (MST) tag able to operate at millimetric frequency bands is proposed in this work. In particular, the proposed tag operates like an RFID tag, but thanks to the MST technique it does not require a radio frequency front end. The information is carried on by modulating an interrogating electromagnetic wave with a suitable change of load impedance of the tag antenna obtained by means of an electronic switch. With respect to standard RFID tags, characterized by limited operative range, MST tags can theoretically reach any distance up to kilometres. In this work, all the components of the MST tag are directly designed on-chip leading to a very compact design. In particular, the tag has been designed to operate at millimetric frequency bands up to 70 GHz. The preliminary experimental results are quite promising, and they demonstrated the capabilities and potentialities of this technique.
On Chip Modulated Scattering Tag Operating at Millimetric Frequency Band
2024-02-17
PIER M
Vol. 124, 63-70, 2024
download: 196
Design of Dual Band MIMO Antenna with Rhombus Shape for Wireless Applications
Chirukuri Naga Phaneendra and Ketavath Kumar Naik
In this paper, a compact quad-port Rhombus-Shaped MIMO Patch (RSMP) antenna with a complete ground structure has been designed for dual-band wireless applications. The RSMP antenna has a common patch configuration and resonates at 12.9 GHz and 16.5 GHz with the reflection coefficients of -17 dB and -25.7 dB, respectively. A rhombus-shaped slot is etched from the patch to generate dual-band frequencies. Microstrip feed lines are connected to the common patch and are used to improve the overall performance of the RSMP antenna. The RSMP antenna has gains of 9.62 dBi and 9.98 dBi at resonating frequencies. The bandwidths of the proposed MIMO antenna model are 300 MHz and 350 MHz, respectively. The proposed RSMP antenna model was fabricated and tested with the vector network analyzer Keysight N9917A for validation. The simulated and measured results for the gain, reflection coefficients, surface current distribution, radiation pattern, envelope correlation coefficient (ECC), diversity gain (DG), total active reflection coefficient (TARC), and channel capacity loss (CCL) are compared, and they are agreed well for wireless applications at Ku-band for broadcasting communications.
Design of Dual Band MIMO Antenna with Rhombus Shape for Wireless Applications
2024-02-15
PIER M
Vol. 124, 53-61, 2024
download: 157
Advancing Wireless Connectivity: a Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna Enhanced by Hexagon Cell Reflector for Superior Gain and Directivity
Maniram Ahirwar and Virendra Singh Chaudhary
In this exploration, our focus lies on unveiling a novel Mixed Multi-Elliptical Shaped (MMES) microstrip patch antenna, notably compact in design. Using the co-planar waveguide (CPW) port technique on an FR-4 substrate, we introduce an antenna showcasing a dual fractional bandwidth, and it spans 76.95% from 2.87 to 6.5 GHz and 53.85% from 8.06 to 14 GHz. To enhance both Gain and Directivity, our design integrates a Hexagon Cell with an Octagon Slot array reflector. This addition results in a peak gain of 8.759 dBi and a maximum directivity of 9.537 dBi at 6 GHz. Achieving optimal Gain and Directivity involved precise adjustments to the gap between the antenna and the reflector plane. The overall dimensions of our proposed antenna measure 59×59×11.67 mm3. Rigorous simulations and empirical validation strongly support the potential of this antenna for applications in BT, WLAN, and WiMAX.
Advancing Wireless Connectivity: A Dual-band Microstrip Antenna Enhanced by Hexagon Cell Reflector for Superior Gain and Directivity
2024-02-15
PIER M
Vol. 124, 43-51, 2024
download: 227
Design and Analysis of a Low-Profile Tapered Slot UWB Vivaldi Antenna for Breast Cancer Diagnosis
Shanmugam Sasikala , Kandasamy Karthika , Shanmugam Arunkumar , Karunakaran Anusha , Srinivasan Adithya and Ahmed Jamal Abdullah Al-Gburi
Antennas are significant passive components in Microwave Imaging (MWI) system. The proposed work focuses on the design and analysis of a Vivaldi antenna of size 45×40×1.6 mm3 for breast cancer diagnosis. The proposed antenna utilizes an FR4 substrate and offers a wideband response. The suggested antenna design is based on a tapered slot antenna. The design utilizes microstrip slot line transition feed as it provides good impedance matching and wide bandwidth. The proposed antenna's design attributes like the radius of the slot and tapering rate are optimized through parametric analysis to achieve desired ultra-wideband (UWB) performance. The UWB offered by the designed antenna is 13.87 GHz (2.79 GHz-16.66 GHz). A Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) of less than 2 is obtained for the entire resonating frequency range. The proposed antenna exhibits 60% size reduction compared to the conventional Vivaldi antenna with a peak gain and directivity of 4.77 dBi and 5.84 dBi, respectively. A breast phantom has been designed and simulated for Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) calculation. The designed structure exhibits an average SAR of 0.997\,W/kg. Further, the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. The measured results agree with simulation findings. Hence, the compactness and radiation performance of the proposed antenna makes it suitable for breast cancer diagnosis.
Design and Analysis of a Low-profile Tapered Slot UWB Vivaldi Antenna for Breast Cancer Diagnosis
2024-02-13
PIER M
Vol. 124, 35-42, 2024
download: 136
Wideband RCS Reduction of Fabry-Perot Resonator Antenna Based on Diffuse Scattering Method
Guoqiang Feng and Peng Xie
Three methods to reduce the RCS of Fabry-Perot (FP) resonator antenna using diffuse scattering are verified and compared in this paper. They are 1 bit random coding, 2 bit random coding, and 2 bit random phase gradient coding method. In order to realize reflection phase coding, a receiver-transmitter type unit with adjustable reflection phase from top side is proposed. Metasurface (MS) composed of this unit is the best choice to achieve the RCS reduction of FP resonator antenna, because it has the ability to independently control the reflection phase on both sides. By changing the size of radiation patch, two units with 90° reflection phase difference and four units with 90° reflection phase difference from top side can be obtained. They are used to compose MSs with different reflection phase distributions. These MSs can form FP resonator antennas with RCS reduction characteristics. Subsequently, three antennas are fabricated and tested, and the test results are compared. The results show that the FP resonator antenna using 2-bit random phase gradient coding has the best performance. It achieves the wideband RCS reduction of antenna and has the least influence on radiation performance. The proposed antenna A3 achieves an average RCS reduction of 12 dB over the bandwidth range of 7.7-13.7 GHz while maintaining a peak gain of 18 dB and good radiation patterns.
Wideband RCS Reduction of Fabry-Perot Resonator Antenna Based on Diffuse Scattering Method
2024-02-09
PIER M
Vol. 124, 29-34, 2024
download: 169
A Flexible Foldable Broadband Metamaterial Absorber Fabricated by Intaglio Printing Technology
Ye Dong , Zhangyou Yang , Siqi Zhang , Rongrong Zhu , Bin Zheng and Huan Lu
Absorbing materials can absorb incident electromagnetic waves effectively and have important research value in radar fields. However, the current absorbing materials are mostly affected by the thickness and flexibility of the dielectric substrate, and they have shortcomings such as being not thin, not flexible, not folding, and not conformal with the protection target, which is not conducive to practical application. In this paper, we propose a flexible absorbing material that can be folded freely for wearable and practical engineering applications, which is composed of a conductive carbon paste ink resistance film layer, a flexible fabric dielectric substrate and a metal backplane. When the incidence angle is less than 30°, more than 90% absorption performance can be achieved at the operating frequency of 9.5-11.5 GHz with polarization insensitive characteristics. Simulated and experimental results prove the effectiveness of the structure. Our work provides the groundwork for the commercialization of future meta-devices such as wearable invisibility cloaks, sensors, optical filters/switchers, photodetectors, and energy converters.
A Flexible Foldable Broadband Metamaterial Absorber Fabricated by Intaglio Printing Technology
2024-02-08
PIER M
Vol. 124, 19-27, 2024
download: 186
Ultrawideband Polarization Conversion Metasurface with Wide Incidence Angle Suitable to Reduce RCS of Planar and Curved Surfaces
Jinrong Su , Yanliang Guo , Haipeng Dou and Xinwei Chen
In this paper, an ultrawideband linear cross polarization converter based on metasurface (MS) with wide incidence angle is presented and applied to the reduction of radarcross section (RCS) for planar and conformal surfaces. A pair of bow-and-arrow shaped split ring cells is printed onan FR4 dielectric substrate. The simulated and experimental results indicate that the converter achieves a cross polarization conversion ratio (PCR) of over 90% in 11.5-28.5 GHz (85% relative bandwidth), and that its oblique incidence performance can be stabilized at ±40° with a very small loss of bandwidth (1.65%). Then, the polarization conversion metasurface (PCM) cells and their mirror cells are laid out in a checkerboard array and applied to reduce RCS of planar and conformal surfaces. The planar PCM achieves more than 7 dB of RCS reduction in 11.4 to 29.6 GHz (88.8% relative bandwidth), and the conformal array with a center angle of 90°obtains more than 10 dB RCS reduction in 18.2 to 23.7 GHz. Due to its excellent performances, the proposed metasurface offers promising options for polarization control devices and stealth technology in Ku- and K-bands.
Ultrawideband Polarization Conversion Metasurface with Wide Incidence Angle Suitable to Reduce RCS of Planar and Curved Surfaces
2024-02-08
PIER M
Vol. 124, 11-17, 2024
download: 213
Dual Split Ring Resonator Based Reconfigurable Reflective Metasurface for Linear-to-Linear Polarization Conversion
Kinatingal Neema and Deepti Das Krishna
A metasurface that can be reconfigured for the conversion of linear-to-linear polarization has been designed, fabricated, and verified. It consists of dual co-centric split-ring resonators (SRRs), each of which has a pair of splits. It is specifically engineered to function in two reflection modes, one with polarization conversion and the other without. The unit cell achieves reconfiguration by utilizing two PIN diodes. Conversion of linear polarization to its perpendicular counterpart is achieved while the diodes are in OFF state. When the PIN diodes are turned on, full reflection without polarization conversion occurs. The proposed meta-surface operates over the 6.03-10.5 GHz frequency range. A 42×42 unit cell array is fabricated, and the results are experimentally verified. An FR4 substrate is used with copper ground plane on one side. The polarization conversion is measured and compared to simulation results for various incident angles. A Polarization Conversion Ratio (PCR) of ≥90% is achieved for incident angles up to 30°, with simulation and measured results showing good agreement.
Dual Split Ring Resonator Based Reconfigurable Reflective Metasurface for Linear-to-linear Polarization Conversion
2024-02-07
PIER M
Vol. 124, 1-9, 2024
download: 172
A Method of Reducing Coupling Between PIFAs Using Cross Slot Defected Ground Structure
Hao Zhang , Yafei Wang and Xuehua Li
To reduce the coupling between closely packed antenna elements in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, a method is proposed to reduce the coupling between planar inverted F-shaped antennas (PIFAs) by using cross slot defected ground structure (CSDGS). This structure includes four intersecting slits etched into the ground plane. The resonant frequency of the PIFA is within the bandgap of the CSDGS, effectively suppressing surface waves and reducing the coupling between antennas. Through simulation, it is demonstrated that the proposed structure achieves more than 35 dB isolation between two antenna elements. To validate the effectiveness of the method, the circuit of the simulated structure is processed and measured using a vector network analyzer. The measured results align closely with the simulated ones, confirming the viability of the proposed method. The parameter study and correlation coefficient of CSDGS are also analyzed.
A Method of Reducing Coupling between PIFAs Using Cross Slot Defected Ground Structure