Theory and Applications of High Impedance Wires
A. M. Mahmoud
Amr M. E. Safwat
This paper presents the theory, properties, types, and applications of high impedance wires (HIWs). The effective permeability of a transmission line that consists of an HIW and a second conductor has a resonating behavior. Consequently, slow-wave and stop-band regions appear in the dispersion relation. In the slow wave regions, a new implementation for dual-mode filter is presented. The proposed filter size is reduced by 33%. In the stop band region, a new application is presented; dual-band balun where the common mode is rejected by the HIW. The novel design has a total area of 4 x 2.4 cm2 and exhibits reliable performances at 2.75 GHz with a 40% bandwidth (2.2--3.3 GHz) and at 4.75 GHz with a 15% bandwidth (4.4--5.1 GHz) with an amplitude imbalance less than 1 dB, a return loss better than 13 dB, and phase imbalance less than 5°. Theoretical expectations were confirmed by EM simulations and measurements.