PIER
 
Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 73 > pp. 249-275

NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN OPTICAL FIBERS: ORIGIN, MANAGEMENT AND APPLICATIONS

By S. P. Singh and N. Singh

Full Article PDF (387 KB)

Abstract:
The nonlinear effects in optical fiber occur either due to intensity dependence of refractive index of the medium or due to inelastic-scattering phenomenon. This paper describes various types of nonlinear effects based on first effect such as self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing. Their thresholds, managements and applications are also discussed; and comparative study of these effects is presented.

Citation: (See works that cites this article)
S. P. Singh and N. Singh, "Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers: Origin, Management and Applications," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 73, 249-275, 2007.
doi:10.2528/PIER07040201
http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=07040201

References:
1. Tsuritani, T., A. Agata, K. Imai, I. Morita, K. Tanaka, T. Miyakawa, N. Edagawa, and M. Suzaka, 35 GHz spaced 20 GbtsX100 WDM RZ transmission over 2700km using SMFbased dispersion flattened fiber span, Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Communication, 3-7, 2000.

2. Bigo, S., Design of multi-tera bit/s transmission systems, Proc. Topical Meetingon Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications (OAA'01), 1-7, 2001.

3. Akimaru, H. and M. R. Finley, "Elements of the emerging broadband information highway," IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 35, 84-94, 1997.
doi:10.1109/35.587711

4. Chraplyvy, A. R. and R. W. Tkach, "Terabit/second transmission experiments," IEEE J. Quantum Electron., Vol. 34, 2103-2108, 1998.
doi:10.1109/3.726600

5. Agrawal, G. P., Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2001.

6. Ramaswami, R. and K. Sivarajan, Optical Networks — A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann Pub. Inc., San Francisco, 1998.

7. Stolen, R. H. and C. Lin, "Self-phase modulation in silica optical fibers," Physical Review A, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1448-1453, 1978.
doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.17.1448

8. Kikuchi, N. and S. Sasaki, "Analytical evaluation technique of selfphase modulation effect on the performance of cascaded optical amplifier," J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 13, 868-878, 1995.
doi:10.1109/50.387804

9. Chraplyvy, A. R., D. Marcuse, and P. S. Henry, "Carrierinduced phase noise in angle-modulated optical fiber systems," J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 2, No. 1, 6-10, 1984.

10. Chraplyvy, A. R., "Limitations on lightwave communications imposed by optical fiber nonlinearities," J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 8, 1548-1557, 1990.
doi:10.1109/50.59195

11. Haus, H. A., Optical fiber solitons: their properties and uses, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 81, 970-983, 1993.

12. Tkach, R. W., A. R. Chraplyvy, F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, and R. M. Dorosier, "Four-photon mixing and high-speed WDM systems," J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 13, 841-849, 1995.
doi:10.1109/50.387800

13. Kikuchi, N., K. Sekine, and S. Saski, "Analysis of XPM effect on WDM transmission performance," Electron. Lett., Vol. 33, 653-654, 1997.
doi:10.1049/el:19970489

14. Kurtze, C., "Suppression of fiber nonlinearities by appropriate dispersion management," IEEE, Vol. 5, 1250-1253, 1993.

15. Zon, X. Y., M. I. Hayee, S. M. Hwang, and A. E. Willner, "Limitations in 10-Gb/s WDM optical fiber transmission when using a variety of fiber types to manage dispersion and nonlinearities," J. Lightwave Tech., Vol. 14, 1144-1152, 1996.
doi:10.1109/50.511616

16. Shibata, N., R. P. Braun, and R. G. Waarts, "Phase-mismatch dependence of efficiency of wave generation through four-wave mixing in single-mode optical fiber," IEEE, Vol. QE-23, No. 7, 1205-1210, 1997.

17. Hussian, M. G. M., "Mathematical method for electromagnetic conductivity of lossy materials," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 2, 271-279, 2005.
doi:10.1163/1569393054497311

18. Biswas, A. and S. Konar, "Soliton-solitons interaction with kerr law non-linearity," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 19, No. 11, 1443-1453, 2005.
doi:10.1163/156939305775701859

19. Sawetanshumala, S. Jana, and S. Konar, "Propagation of a mixture of modes of a laser beam in a medium with saturable nonlinearity," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 20, No. 1, 65-77, 2006.
doi:10.1163/156939306775777422

20. Mandal, B. and A. R. Chowdhary, "Spatial soliton scattering in a quasi phase matched quaderatic media in presence of cubic nonlinearity," Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21, No. 1, 123-135, 2007.
doi:10.1163/156939307779391704

21. Xiao, X. S., S. M. Gao, Y. Tian, and C. X. Yang, "Optimization of the net residual dispersion for self-phase modulation-impaired systems by perturbation theory," J. Lightwave. Tech., Vol. 25, No. 3, 929-937, 2007.
doi:10.1109/JLT.2006.889689

22. Xiao, X. S., S. M. Gao, Y. Tian, and C. X. Yang, "Analytical optimization of net residual dispersion in SPM-limited dispersionmanaged systems," J. Lightwave. Tech., Vol. 24, No. 5, 2038-2044, 2006.
doi:10.1109/JLT.2006.872278

23. Yang, Y, C. Lou, H. Zhou, J. Wang, and Y. Gao, "Simple pulse compression scheme based on filtering self-phase modulationbroadened spectrum and its application in an optical time-division multiplexing systems," Appl. Opt., Vol. 45, 7524-7528, 2006.
doi:10.1364/AO.45.007524

24. Okawachi, Y., J. E. Sharping, C. Xu, and A. L. Gaeta, "Large tunable optical delays via self-phase modulation and dispersion," Optics Express, Vol. 14, No. 25, 2006.
doi:10.1364/OE.14.012022

25. Oda, S. and A. Maruta, "All-optical tunable delay line based on soliton self-frequency shift and filtering broadened spectrum due to self-phase modulation," Optics Express, Vol. 14, 7895-7902, 2006.
doi:10.1364/OE.14.007895

26. Daikoku, M., N. Yoshikane, T. Otani, and H. Tanaka, "Optical 40-Gb/s 3R regenerator with a combination of the SPM and XAM effects for all-optical networks," J. Lightwave.Tech., Vol. 24, No. 3, 1142-1148, 2006.
doi:10.1109/JLT.2005.863330

27. Abedin, K. S., "Ultrafast pulse retiming by cross-phase modulation in an anomalous-dispersion polarization-maintaining fiber," Opt. Lett., Vol. 30, 2979-2981, 2005.
doi:10.1364/OL.30.002979

28. Alfano, R. R., The Supercontinuum Laser Source, 2nd edition, Springer, New York, 2006.

29. Singh, S. P., S. Kar, and V. K. Jain, "Novel strategies for reducing FWM using modified repeated unequally spaced channel allocation," Fiber and Integrated Optics, Vol. 6, 415-437, 2004.
doi:10.1080/01468030490510234

30. Asimakis, S., P. Petropoulos, F. Poletti, J. Y. Y. Leong, R. C. Moore, K. E. Frampton, X. Feng, W. H. Loh, and D. J. Richardson, "Towards efficient and broadband four-wavemixing using short-length dispersion tailored lead silicate holy fibers," Optics Express, Vol. 15, No. 2, 596-601, 2007.


© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved