Progress In Electromagnetics Research
ISSN: 1070-4698, E-ISSN: 1559-8985
Home | Search | Notification | Authors | Submission | PIERS Home | EM Academy
Home > Vol. 99 > pp. 339-354


By E. Setijadi, A. Matsushima, N. Tanaka, and G. Hendrantoro

Full Article PDF (285 KB)

Specific rain attenuation is discussed from the viewpoint of numerical solution for scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves related to dielectric spheres. Special attention is paid to the quantitative evaluations considering the change of temperature and the existence of multiple scattering effect. The analysis is based on the set of Stratton's vector spherical wave functions and its addition theorem, which lead to the simultaneous linear equations for the expansion coefficients with adaptively selected truncation numbers. Computed extinction cross sections lead directly to the specific rain attenuation, where the Weibull raindrop distribution model is used. It is discussed how the dependence of the permittivity of water on temperature and frequency affects the attenuation property. Furthermore, the effect of multiple scattering is evaluated in terms of the root mean square of attenuation deviation from the simple superposition of single scattering (Mie's) coefficients. Contrary to general belief, this deviation is the highest at around the boundary between microwave and millimeter wave bands.

E. Setijadi, A. Matsushima, N. Tanaka, and G. Hendrantoro, "Effect of Temperature and Multiple Scattering on Rain Attenuation of Electromagnetic Waves by a Simple Spherical Model," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 99, 339-354, 2009.

1. Brussaard, G. and P. A. Watson, Atmospheric Modelling and Millimetre Wave Propagation, Sec. 4.2, Chapman & Hall, London, 1994.

2. Lin, D.-P. and H.-Y. Chen, "An empirical formula for the prediction of rain attenuation in frequency range 0.6--100 GHz," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 50, No. 4, 545-551, 2002.

3. Zhu, L., X.-G. Li, and G.-W. Lou, "Analysis of characters of submillimeter wave attenuation by rain medium," Microwave Opt. Tech. Lett., Vol. 50, No. 4, 1025-1028, 2008.

4. Bahrami, M. and J. Rashed-Mohassel, "An exact solution of coherent wave propagation in rain medium with realistic raindrop shapes," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 79, 107-118, 2008.

5. Oguchi, T., "Scattering properties of Pruppacher-and-Pitter form raindrops and cross polarization due to rain: Calculation at 11, 13, 19.3, and 34.8 GHz," Radio Science, Vol. 12, No. 1, 41-51, 1977.

6. Ishimaru, A., "Multiple scattering calculations of rain effects," Radio Science, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1425-1433, 1982.

7. Tsolakis, A. I. and W. L. Stutzman, "Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain," Radio Science, Vol. 17, No. 6, 1495-1502, 1982.

8. Rogers, D. V. and R. L. Olsen, "Multiple scattering in coherent radiowave propagation through rain," COMSAT Technical Review, Vol. 13, 385-401, 1983.

9. Pruppacher, H. R. and R. L. Pitter, "A semi-empirical determination of the shape of cloud and rain drops," J. Atomos. Sci., Vol. 28, No. 1, 86-94, 1971.

10. Bruning, J. H. and Y. T. Lo, "Multiple scattering of EM waves by spheres part I --- Multipole expansion and ray-optical solutions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., Vol. 19, No. 3, 378-390, 1971.

11. Hamid, A.-K., I. R. Ciric, and M. Hamid, "Electromagnetic scattering by an arbitrary configuration of dielectric spheres," Can. J. Phys., Vol. 68, No. 12, 1419-1428, 1990.

12. Matsushima, A., Y. Momoka, M. Ohtsu, and Y. Okuno, "Efficient numerical approach to electromagnetic scattering from three-dimensional periodic array of dielectric spheres using sequential accumulation," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 69, 305-322, 2007.

13. Stratton, J. A., Electromagnetic Theory, Ch. 7, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1941.

14. Cruzan, O. R., "Translation addition theorem for spherical vector wave functions," Quart. J. Appl. Math., Vol. 20, 33-39, 1962.

15. Marshall, J. S. and W. M. Palmer, "The distribution of raindrops with size," J. Meteorology, Vol. 5, 165-166, 1948.

16. Atlas, D. and C. W. Ulbrich, "The physical basis for attenuation rainfall relationships and the measurement of rainfall parameters by combined attenuation and radar methods," J. Rech. Atmos., Vol. 8, 275-298, 1974.

17. Sekine, M., C.-D. Chen, and T. Musha, "Rain attenuation from log-normal and weibull raindrop-size distributions," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 35, No. 3, 358-359, 1987.

18. Utsunomiya, T. and M. Sekine, "Rain attenuation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves, Vol. 26, No. 6, 905-920, 2005.

19. Liebe, H. J., G. A. Hufford, and T. Manabe, "A Model for the complex permittivity of water at frequencies below 1 THz," Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves, Vol. 12, No. 7, 659-675, 1991.

20. Harrington, R. F., Time-harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, Ch. 3, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1961.

21., ITU-R P.838-3, "Specific attenuation model for rain for use in prediction methods," May 2005.

22. Waterman, P. C., Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 53, 805-812, 1965.

23. Ohtsu, M., Y. Okuno, A. Matsushima, and T. Suyama, "A combination of up- and down-going Floquet modal functions used to describe the field inside grooves of a deep grating," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 64, 293-316, 2006.

© Copyright 2014 EMW Publishing. All Rights Reserved